Bin Zhao
Edison Ong
Yongqun He (Oliver)
Yu Lin (Asiyah)
OHPI is a biomedical ontology in the area of host-pathogen interactions. OHPI is developed by following the OBO Foundry Principles (e.g., openness and collaboration).
OWL-DL
A biomedical ontology in the area of host-pathogen interactions.
OHPI: Ontology of Host-Pathogen Interactions
BFO OWL specification label
BFO OWL规范标签
Relates an entity in the ontology to the name of the variable that is used to represent it in the code that generates the BFO OWL file from the lispy specification.
将本体中的实体关联到用于在代码中表示它的变量的名称，这些代码从lispy规范生成BFO OWL 文件。
Really of interest to developers only
只对开发人员感兴趣
BFO OWL specification label
BFO OWL specification label
BFO OWL规范标签
BFO OWL规范标签
BFO CLIF specification label
BFO CLIF规范标签
Relates an entity in the ontology to the term that is used to represent it in the the CLIF specification of BFO2
将本体中的实体关联到用于在BFO2 CLIF规范中表示它的术语上。
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Really of interest to developers only
只对开发人员感兴趣
BFO CLIF specification label
BFO CLIF specification label
BFO CLIF规范标签
BFO CLIF规范标签
An annotation property that represents an ID used in the NIH LINCS project.
An annotation property that represents an LINCS ID of a cell line.
表示细胞系的LINCS ID的注释属性。
Oliver He, Jiangan Xie
Oliver He, Jiangan Xie
Oliver He, Jiangan Xie, Jie Zheng
Cell line LINCS ID
LINCS ID
细胞系LINCS ID
细胞系LINCS ID
editor preferred label
editor preferred label
editor preferred term
editor preferred term
editor preferred term~editor preferred label
编辑首选术语
编辑首选标签
The concise, meaningful, and human-friendly name for a class or property preferred by the ontology developers. (US-English)
对于一类或属性的简洁的、有意义的、与人类友好的名称由本体开发商首选。 （美国英语）
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
editor preferred label
editor preferred label
editor preferred term
editor preferred term
editor preferred term~editor preferred label
editor preferred term~editor preferred label
编辑首选术语
编辑首选术语
编辑首选术语~编辑首选标签
编辑首选标签
编辑首选标签
example
example of usage
例子
用法示例
A phrase describing how a class name should be used. May also include other kinds of examples that facilitate immediate understanding of a class semantics, such as widely known prototypical subclasses or instances of the class. Although essential for high level terms, examples for low level terms (e.g., Affymetrix HU133 array) are not
A phrase describing how a term should be used and/or a citation to a work which uses it. May also include other kinds of examples that facilitate immediate understanding, such as widely know prototypes or instances of a class, or cases where a relation is said to hold.
短语描述一个类的名字应该如何使用。也可包括其他类型有助于直接理解类的语义的例子，如广为人知的类的原型子类或实例。虽然高水平的术语必不可少，对于低级别术语的示例（例如，Affymetrix HU133阵列）不
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
IAO:0000112
uberon
example_of_usage
true
example_of_usage
example of usage
example of usage
用法示例
用法示例
has curation status
有管理状态
PERSON:Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON:Bill Bug
PERSON:Melanie Courtot
OBI_0000281
has curation status
has curation status
有管理状态
有管理状态
definition
definition
textual definition
textual definition
定义
OBI的官方定义，解释类或属性的含义。应该是亚里士多德式的，形式化和规范化的。 可以通过口语定义进行扩充。
The official OBI definition, explaining the meaning of a class or property. Shall be Aristotelian, formalized and normalized. Can be augmented with colloquial definitions.
The official definition, explaining the meaning of a class or property. Shall be Aristotelian, formalized and normalized. Can be augmented with colloquial definitions.
官方的定义，解释类或属性的含义。应该是亚里士多德式的，形式化和规范化的。 可以通过口语定义进行扩充。
2012-04-05:
Barry Smith
OBI的官方定义解释了一个类或属性的含义：'应该是亚里士多德式的，形式化和规范化的。可以用口语定义'是糟糕的。
您能解决这样的问题吗？
解释关于类或属性的表达含义的必要和充分条件的陈述。
Alan Ruttenberg
您提出的定义是一个合理的备选，除非它很常见，没有给出必要和充分的条件。大多数情况下它们是必要的，偶尔是必要的，充分的或者仅仅仅充分的。它们通常使用不是自己定义的术语，因此它们实际上不能通过这些标准进行评估。
关于拟议定义的具体内容：
我们没有“含义”，或“表达”或“属性”的定义。对于在预期意义上的“参考”，我认为我们使用术语“指示”。对于'表达'，我认为我们和你的意思是符号，或标识符。对于“含义”，它不同于类和属性。对于类，我们希望文档能够让读者确定一个实体是否是该类的实例。对于属性，让我们的目标读者决定，给定一对潜在的关系，判断关系成立的断言正确与否。 “目标读者”部分表明我们也指定了我们期望的能够理解定义的人，并且概括了人类和计算机读者以包含文本和逻辑定义。
就我个人而言，我更愿意削弱对文档的定义，并指出什么是可取的。
我们还有一个悬而未决的问题，就是如何针对不同的受众定位不同的定义。临床读者阅读chebi需要来自受过化学训练的受众的不同类型的定义文档/定义，同样需要一个适合本体工作者的定义。
2012-04-05:
Barry Smith
The official OBI definition, explaining the meaning of a class or property: 'Shall be Aristotelian, formalized and normalized. Can be augmented with colloquial definitions' is terrible.
Can you fix to something like:
A statement of necessary and sufficient conditions explaining the meaning of an expression referring to a class or property.
Alan Ruttenberg
Your proposed definition is a reasonable candidate, except that it is very common that necessary and sufficient conditions are not given. Mostly they are necessary, occasionally they are necessary and sufficient or just sufficient. Often they use terms that are not themselves defined and so they effectively can't be evaluated by those criteria.
On the specifics of the proposed definition:
We don't have definitions of 'meaning' or 'expression' or 'property'. For 'reference' in the intended sense I think we use the term 'denotation'. For 'expression', I think we you mean symbol, or identifier. For 'meaning' it differs for class and property. For class we want documentation that let's the intended reader determine whether an entity is instance of the class, or not. For property we want documentation that let's the intended reader determine, given a pair of potential relata, whether the assertion that the relation holds is true. The 'intended reader' part suggests that we also specify who, we expect, would be able to understand the definition, and also generalizes over human and computer reader to include textual and logical definition.
Personally, I am more comfortable weakening definition to documentation, with instructions as to what is desirable.
We also have the outstanding issue of how to aim different definitions to different audiences. A clinical audience reading chebi wants a different sort of definition documentation/definition from a chemistry trained audience, and similarly there is a need for a definition that is adequate for an ontologist to work with.
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
definition
definition
textual definition
textual definition
定义
定义
文本定义
文本定义
editor note
编者注
An administrative note intended for its editor. It may not be included in the publication version of the ontology, so it should contain nothing necessary for end users to understand the ontology.
管理者注释用于其编辑器。它可能不包含在本体的出版版本中，所以它应该不包含最终用户了解本体所需的信息。
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obfoundry.org/obo/obi>
IAO:0000116
IAO:0000116
uberon
uberon
editor_note
editor_note
编辑_注释
true
editor_note
editor_note
编辑_注释
IAO:0000116
IAO:0000116
uberon
uberon
editor_note
editor_note
1
true
editor_note
editor_note
editor note
editor note
编者注
编者注
definition editor
term editor
术语编辑者
Name of editor entering the definition in the file. The definition editor is a point of contact for information regarding the term. The definition editor may be, but is not always, the author of the definition, which may have been worked upon by several people
Name of editor entering the term in the file. The term editor is a point of contact for information regarding the term. The term editor may be, but is not always, the author of the definition, which may have been worked upon by several people
输入文件中术语编辑者的名称。术语编辑者是有关术语的信息交汇点。术语编辑者可以是，但并不总是，定义的作者，这可能是由几个人完成
20110707, MC: label update to term editor and definition modified accordingly. See http://code.google.com/p/information-artifact-ontology/issues/detail?id=115.
20110707, MC: label update to term editor and definition modified accordingly. See https://github.com/information-artifact-ontology/IAO/issues/115.
20110707，MC：术语编辑和定义进行相应的修改。见http://code.google.com/p/information-artifact-ontology/issues/detail?id=115。
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
definition editor
definition editor
term editor
term editor
术语编辑者
术语编辑者
alternative term
替代术语
An alternative name for a class or property which means the same thing as the preferred name (semantically equivalent)
一类或属性的替代名称，这意味着与所述首选名称同样的事物（语义上等价）
PERSON:Daniel Schober
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
alternative term
alternative term
替代术语
替代术语
definition source
定义来源
Formal citation, e.g. identifier in external database to indicate / attribute source(s) for the definition. Free text indicate / attribute source(s) for the definition. EXAMPLE: Author Name, URI, MeSH Term C04, PUBMED ID, Wiki uri on 31.01.2007.
formal citation, e.g. identifier in external database to indicate / attribute source(s) for the definition. Free text indicate / attribute source(s) for the definition. EXAMPLE: Author Name, URI, MeSH Term C04, PUBMED ID, Wiki uri on 31.01.2007
正式引用，例如在外部数据库中的标识符，用于表示/定义的属性源（S）。自由文本表示/为定义属性源（S）。实例：在2007年1月31日的作者姓名，URI，MeSH术语C04，PUBMEDID，维基uri
PERSON:Daniel Schober
Discussion on obo-discuss mailing-list, see http://bit.ly/hgm99w
Discussion on obo-discuss mailing-list, see http://bit.ly/hgm99w
GROUP:OBI:<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/obi>
论OBO-讨论邮件-列表，请参阅http://bit.ly/hgm99w
definition source
definition source
定义来源
定义来源
has obsolescence reason
Relates an annotation property to an obsolescence reason. The values of obsolescence reasons come from a list of predefined terms, instances of the class obsolescence reason specification.
PERSON:Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON:Melanie Courtot
has obsolescence reason
curator note
管理者注释
An administrative note of use for a curator but of no use for a user
管理者注释对管理者有用对用户无用
PERSON:Alan Ruttenberg
IAO:0000232
IAO:0000232
uberon
uberon
curator_notes
curator_notes
管理者_注释
true
curator_notes
curator_notes
管理者_注释
IAO:0000232
uberon
curator_notes
1
true
curator_notes
curator note
curator note
curator notes
curator notes
管理者注释
管理者注释
The name of the person, project, or organization that motivated inclusion of an ontology term by requesting its addition.
Person: Jie Zheng, Chris Stoeckert, Alan Ruttenberg
Person: Jie Zheng, Chris Stoeckert, Alan Ruttenberg
The 'term requester' can credit the person, organization or project who request the ontology term.
ontology term requester
expand expression to
ObjectProperty: RO_0002104
Label: has plasma membrane part
Annotations: IAO_0000424 "http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000051 some (http://purl.org/obo/owl/GO#GO_0005886 and http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000051 some ?Y)"
A macro expansion tag applied to an object property (or possibly a data property) which can be used by a macro-expansion engine to generate more complex expressions from simpler ones
Chris Mungall
expand expression to
expand expression to
OBO foundry unique label
An alternative name for a class or property which is unique across the OBO Foundry.
The intended usage of that property is as follow: OBO foundry unique labels are automatically generated based on regular expressions provided by each ontology, so that SO could specify unique label = 'sequence ' + [label], etc. , MA could specify 'mouse + [label]' etc. Upon importing terms, ontology developers can choose to use the 'OBO foundry unique label' for an imported term or not. The same applies to tools .
PERSON:Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON:Bjoern Peters
PERSON:Chris Mungall
PERSON:Melanie Courtot
GROUP:OBO Foundry <http://obofoundry.org/>
OBO foundry unique label
elucidation
说明
person:Alan Ruttenberg
Person:Barry Smith
Primitive terms in a highest-level ontology such as BFO are terms which are so basic to our understanding of reality that there is no way of defining them in a non-circular fashion. For these, therefore, we can provide only elucidations, supplemented by examples and by axioms
在最高级别的本体中的原始术语如BFO是对我们理解现实最基本，以至于无法以非循环的方式来定义它们的术语。对于这些，因此，我们只能提供说明，通过例子和公理进行补充
elucidation
elucidation
说明
说明
has associated axiom(nl)
具有相关联的公理（nl）
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
An axiom associated with a term expressed using natural language
与一个使用自然语言表达的术语相关的公理
has associated axiom(nl)
has associated axiom(nl)
具有相关联的公理（nl）
具有相关联的公理（nl）
has associated axiom(fol)
具有相关联的公理（fol）
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
An axiom expressed in first order logic using CLIF syntax
使用CLIF语法在第一逻辑进行表达的公理
has associated axiom(fol)
has associated axiom(fol)
具有相关联的公理（fol）
具有相关联的公理（fol）
has axiom id
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
A URI that is intended to be unique label for an axiom used for tracking change to the ontology. For an axiom expressed in different languages, each expression is given the same URI
axiom id
has axiom label
term replaced by
Add as annotation triples in the granting ontology
Use on obsolete terms, relating the term to another term that can be used as a substitute
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
Person:Alan Ruttenberg
term replaced by
term replaced by
an annotation property that lists keyword(s) useful for literature tagging and retrieval of sentences containing the type (or kind) of entity (e.g., interaction) as shown by the ontology term label and definition.
Yongqun He
has literature mining keywords
the symbol assigned by the nomenclature authority
Oliver He, Yue Liu
symbol from nomenclature authority
the full name assigned by the nomenclature authority
Oliver He, Yue Liu
full name from nomenclature authority
A GeneID in the NCBI Gene database
Oliver He, Yue Liu
NCBI GeneID
the NCBI LocusTag name of a gene
Oliver He, Yue Liu
NCBI LocusTag
the map location of a gene
Oliver He, Yue Liu
gene map location
a date of content modification
Oliver He, Yue Liu
modification date
The NCBITaxon ontology ID of an organism.
Oliver He, Yue Liu
organism NCBITaxon ID
A chromosome ID where a gene is located.
Oliver He
chromosome ID of gene
an annotation property that specifies the type of a gene
Oliver He
type of gene
an annotation property that specifies a nomenclature status
Oliver He
nomenclature status
an annotation property that shows the GO information associated with a specific gene.
Yongqun He
YH: use the convention:
GO_ID (EC: xx; Qualifier: xx; PMID: xxxxx;)
where GO_ID is a GO ID, EC is the Evidence Code, Qualifier is a specific association type, and PMID is a PubMed ID of a paper that supports the gene-GO association.
has GO association
An annotation property that represents a gene's association with PubMed publication(s).
Yongqun He
YH: use the format:
PMID: pmid1, pmid2, ...
where pmid1 and pmid2 are specfic PubMed IDs (PMIDs).
has PubMed association
The annotation of the gene as a virulence factor stored in the Victors database (http://www.phidias.us/victors/).
Edison Ong; Yongqun He; Yu Lin
has Victors annotation
The idenfier of the entity stored in the Victors database (http://www.phidias.us/victors/).
Edison Ong; Yongqun He; Yu Lin
has Victors id
An assertion that holds between an OWL Object Property and a temporal interpretation that elucidates how OWL Class Axioms that use this property are to be interpreted in a temporal context.
temporal interpretation
https://code.google.com/p/obo-relations/wiki/ROAndTime
https://github.com/oborel/obo-relations/wiki/ROAndTime
S dubious_for_taxon T if it is probably the case that no instances of S can be found in any instance of T.
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6601-2165
RO:0002174
uberon
dubious_for_taxon
true
true
dubious_for_taxon
This relation lacks a strong logical interpretation, but can be used in place of never_in_taxon where it is desirable to state that the definition of the class is too strict for the taxon under consideration, but placing a never_in_taxon link would result in a chain of inconsistencies that will take ongoing coordinated effort to resolve. Example: metencephalon in teleost
this relation lacks a strong logical interpretation, but can be used in place of never_in_taxon where it is desirable to state that the definition of the class is too strict for the taxon under consideration, but placing a never_in_taxon link would result in a chain of inconsistencies that will take time to resolve. Example: metencephalon in teleost
dubious for taxon
dubious_for_taxon
S dubious_for_taxon T if it is probably the case that no instances of S can be found in any instance of T.
S present_in_taxon T if some instance of T has some S. This does not means that all instances of T have an S - it may only be certain life stages or sexes that have S
https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6601-2165
RO:0002175
applicable for taxon
uberon
present_in_taxon
true
true
present_in_taxon
present in taxon
present_in_taxon
S present_in_taxon T if some instance of T has some S. This does not means that all instances of T have an S - it may only be certain life stages or sexes that have S
defined by inverse
Used to annotate object properties to describe a logical meta-property or characteristic of the object property.
logical macro assertion on an object property
logical macro assertion on an annotation property
relation p is the direct form of relation q iff p is a subPropertyOf q, p does not have the Transitive characteristic, q does have the Transitive characteristic, and for all x, y: x q y -> exists z1, z2, ..., zn such that x p z1 ... z2n y
The general property hierarchy is:
"directly P" SubPropertyOf "P"
Transitive(P)
Where we have an annotation assertion
"directly P" "is direct form of" "P"
If we have the annotation P is-direct-form-of Q, and we have inverses P' and Q', then it follows that P' is-direct-form-of Q'
Chris Mungall
is direct form of
If R <- P o Q is a defining property chain axiom, then it also holds that R -> P o Q. Note that this cannot be expressed directly in OWL
is a defining property chain axiom
If R <- P o Q is a defining property chain axiom, then (1) R -> P o Q holds and (2) Q is either reflexive or locally reflexive. A corollary of this is that P SubPropertyOf R.
is a defining property chain axiom where second argument is reflexive
cjm
2018-03-14T00:03:16Z
is positive form of
cjm
2018-03-14T00:03:24Z
is negative form of
part-of is homeomorphic for independent continuants.
R is homemorphic for C iff (1) there exists some x,y such that x R y, and x and y instantiate C and (2) for all x, if x is an instance of C, and there exists some y some such that x R y, then it follows that y is an instance of C.
cjm
2018-10-21T19:46:34Z
R homeomorphic-for C expands to: C SubClassOf R only C. Additionally, for any class D that is disjoint with C, we can also expand to C DisjointWith R some D, D DisjointWith R some C.
is homeomorphic for
An alternate textual definition for a class taken unmodified from an external source. This definition may have been used to derive a generalized definition for the new class.
UBPROP:0000001
uberon
external_definition
true
external_definition
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
external_definition
An alternate textual definition for a class taken unmodified from an external source. This definition may have been used to derive a generalized definition for the new class.
A textual description of an axiom loss in this ontology compared to an external ontology.
UBPROP:0000002
uberon
axiom_lost_from_external_ontology
true
axiom_lost_from_external_ontology
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
axiom_lost_from_external_ontology
A textual description of an axiom loss in this ontology compared to an external ontology.
Notes on the homology status of this class.
UBPROP:0000003
uberon
homology_notes
true
homology_notes
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
homology_notes
Notes on the homology status of this class.
An alternate comment for a class taken unmodified from an external source. Note that obo format only allows a single comment for a class, and does not provide a structured means of adding provenance info.
UBPROP:0000005
uberon
external_comment
true
external_comment
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
external_comment
An alternate comment for a class taken unmodified from an external source. Note that obo format only allows a single comment for a class, and does not provide a structured means of adding provenance info.
UBPROP:0000006
uberon
implements_design_pattern
true
implements_design_pattern
implements_design_pattern
Used to connect a class to an adjectival form of its label. For example, a class with label 'intestine' may have a relational adjective 'intestinal'.
UBPROP:0000007
uberon
has_relational_adjective
true
has_relational_adjective
has_relational_adjective
Notes on the how instances of this class vary across species.
UBPROP:0000008
uberon
taxon_notes
true
taxon_notes
taxon_notes
Notes on the how instances of this class vary across species.
Notes on the evolved function of instances of this class.
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
UBPROP:0000009
uberon
function_notes
true
function_notes
function_notes
Notes on the evolved function of instances of this class.
Notes on the structure, composition or histology of instances of this class.
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
UBPROP:0000010
uberon
structure_notes
true
structure_notes
structure_notes
Notes on the structure, composition or histology of instances of this class.
Notes on the ontogenic development of instances of this class.
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
UBPROP:0000011
uberon
development_notes
true
development_notes
development_notes
Notes on the ontogenic development of instances of this class.
Notes on how similar or equivalent classes are represented in other ontologies.
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
UBPROP:0000012
uberon
external_ontology_notes
true
external_ontology_notes
external_ontology_notes
Notes on how similar or equivalent classes are represented in other ontologies.
Notes on how lexical conventions regarding this class, in particular any issues that may arise due to homonyny or synonymy.
This annotation property may be replaced with an annotation property from an external ontology such as IAO
UBPROP:0000013
uberon
terminology_notes
true
terminology_notes
terminology_notes
Notes on how lexical conventions regarding this class, in particular any issues that may arise due to homonyny or synonymy.
UBPROP:0000100
uberon
is_count_of
true
is_count_of
is count of
A property used in conjunction with repeated_element_number to indicate an axis and directionality along that axis. If P preceding_element_is R, and P is_count_of S, and X P N, and X' P N+1, then it follows that every X R some X', and the class expression [S and R some X' and inv(R) some X] is empty (i.e. X is followed by X', with no intermediates)
UBPROP:0000101
uberon
preceding_element_is
true
preceding_element_is
preceding element is
A property used in conjunction with repeated_element_number to indicate an axis and directionality along that axis. If P preceding_element_is R, and P is_count_of S, and X P N, and X' P N+1, then it follows that every X R some X', and the class expression [S and R some X' and inv(R) some X] is empty (i.e. X is followed by X', with no intermediates)
x pharyngeal_arch_number N if and only if (i) x is a pharyngeal arch, and (ii) x is ancestrally pharyngeal arch number N in a series of pharyngeal arches repeated along a antero-posterior axis, with arch_number 1 being the mandibular arch.
gill arch N = PA N-2. the term branchial_arch is ambiguous.
UBPROP:0000103
uberon
pharyngeal_arch_number
true
pharyngeal_arch_number
pharyngeal arch number
x pharyngeal_arch_number N if and only if (i) x is a pharyngeal arch, and (ii) x is ancestrally pharyngeal arch number N in a series of pharyngeal arches repeated along a antero-posterior axis, with arch_number 1 being the mandibular arch.
FMA has terms like 'set of X'. In general we do not include set-of terms in uberon, but provide a mapping between the singular form and the FMA set term
UBPROP:0000202
uberon
fma_set_term
true
fma_set_term
fma_set_term
FMA has terms like 'set of X'. In general we do not include set-of terms in uberon, but provide a mapping between the singular form and the FMA set term
FMA
IUPAC NAME
Manually annotated by ChEBI Team
DO_AGR_slim
DO_FlyBase_slim
DO_MGI_slim
DO_cancer_slim
DO_rare_slim
NCIthesaurus
TopNodes_DOcancerslim
Term not to be used for direct annotation
Term not to be used for direct manual annotation
AGR slim
Aspergillus GO slim
Candida GO slim
ChEMBL protein targets summary
FlyBase Drosophila GO ribbon slim
Generic GO slim
Metagenomics GO slim
Mouse GO slim
PIR GO slim
Plant GO slim
Fission yeast GO slim
Yeast GO slim
A metadata relation between a class and its taxonomic rank (eg species, family)
ncbi_taxonomy
has_rank
Label appended to organism-specific terms in place of scientific name
Unique short label for PRO terms for display purposes; based on orthology
eco subset
abbreviation
A historic synonym, no longer encouraged
dubious or contested synonym
preferred term when talking about an instance of this class in Homo sapiens
indicates that a synonym is used in an inconsistent or confusing way, typically between species
latin term
expert consultation and attribution required
plural term
taxonomic disambiguation
CUMBO
developmental_classification
A class that represents an early developmental structure, like a blastocyst. This part of the ontology is undergoing review to remove inappropriate grouping classes.
EFO slim
derived from the union of EHDAA2 and EMAPA - still to be checked
functional_classification
Subset consisting of classes creating for grouping purposes
A grouping class that depends on an assumption of homology between subclasses
classes that have some inconsistency with FMA
somewhat fuzzy grouping for analysis purposes, currently composed of something like: liver, heart, skeletal, kidney, bladder, brain, skin, mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestines, trachea nose, lungs, brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, gonads
abstract class brought in to group ontology classes but not informative
organs, excluding individual muscles and skeletal elements
Phenotype slim
A subset specifically created for the 2012 Phenotype RCN meeting. Includes some human-specific terms that may eventually be removed when they are adequately represented with part of relationships in FMA
Uberon slim - subset that excludes obscure terms and deep compositional terms
abstract upper-level terms not directly useful for analysis
core classes typically found across vertebrates. one purpose is to create a rough set of terms that could be used to start a new vertebrate AO
Examples of a Contributor include a person, an
organisation, or a service. Typically, the name of a
Contributor should be used to indicate the entity.
uberon
dc-contributor
true
dc-contributor
An entity responsible for making contributions to the
content of the resource.
Contributor
Contributor
contributor
Examples of a Creator include a person, an organisation,
or a service. Typically, the name of a Creator should
be used to indicate the entity.
uberon
dc-creator
true
dc-creator
An entity primarily responsible for making the content
of the resource.
Creator
Creator
creator
Description may include but is not limited to: an abstract,
table of contents, reference to a graphical representation
of content or a free-text account of the content.
uberon
dc-description
true
dc-description
An account of the content of the resource.
Description
Description
description
Typically, Format may include the media-type or dimensions of
the resource. Format may be used to determine the software,
hardware or other equipment needed to display or operate the
resource. Examples of dimensions include size and duration.
Recommended best practice is to select a value from a
controlled vocabulary (for example, the list of Internet Media
Types [MIME] defining computer media formats).
The physical or digital manifestation of the resource.
Format
Format
The present resource may be derived from the Source resource
in whole or in part. Recommended best practice is to reference
the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a
formal identification system.
uberon
dc-source
true
dc-source
A reference to a resource from which the present resource
is derived.
Source
Source
derived from resource
Typically, a Subject will be expressed as keywords,
key phrases or classification codes that describe a topic
of the resource. Recommended best practice is to select
a value from a controlled vocabulary or formal
classification scheme.
The topic of the content of the resource.
Subject and Keywords
Subject and Keywords
Typically, a Title will be a name by which the resource is
formally known.
uberon
dc-title
true
dc-title
A name given to the resource.
Title
Title
title
created_by
creation_date
has_alternative_id
has_broad_synonym
database_cross_reference
database_cross_reference
数据库_交叉_引用
数据库_交叉_引用
has_exact_synonym
has_narrow_synonym
disease_ontology
has_obo_namespace
has_obo_namespace
有_obo_命名空间
有_obo_命名空间
has_related_synonym
has_scope
has_synonym_type
id
in_subset
shorthand
shorthand
is defined by
is defined by
This is an experimental annotation
label
label
label
标签
uberon
foaf-homepage
true
foaf-homepage
homepage
uberon
foaf-page
true
foaf-page
page
is part of
my brain is part of my body (continuant parthood, two material entities)
my stomach cavity is part of my stomach (continuant parthood, immaterial entity is part of material entity)
this day is part of this year (occurrent parthood)
a core relation that holds between a part and its whole
Everything is part of itself. Any part of any part of a thing is itself part of that thing. Two distinct things cannot be part of each other.
Occurrents are not subject to change and so parthood between occurrents holds for all the times that the part exists. Many continuants are subject to change, so parthood between continuants will only hold at certain times, but this is difficult to specify in OWL. See https://code.google.com/p/obo-relations/wiki/ROAndTime
Parthood requires the part and the whole to have compatible classes: only an occurrent can be part of an occurrent; only a process can be part of a process; only a continuant can be part of a continuant; only an independent continuant can be part of an independent continuant; only an immaterial entity can be part of an immaterial entity; only a specifically dependent continuant can be part of a specifically dependent continuant; only a generically dependent continuant can be part of a generically dependent continuant. (This list is not exhaustive.)
A continuant cannot be part of an occurrent: use 'participates in'. An occurrent cannot be part of a continuant: use 'has participant'. A material entity cannot be part of an immaterial entity: use 'has location'. A specifically dependent continuant cannot be part of an independent continuant: use 'inheres in'. An independent continuant cannot be part of a specifically dependent continuant: use 'bearer of'.
part_of
BFO:0000050
external
protein
uberon
part_of
part_of
part of
part of
part_of
part_of
http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/#OBO_REL:part_of
has part
my body has part my brain (continuant parthood, two material entities)
my stomach has part my stomach cavity (continuant parthood, material entity has part immaterial entity)
this year has part this day (occurrent parthood)
a core relation that holds between a whole and its part
Everything has itself as a part. Any part of any part of a thing is itself part of that thing. Two distinct things cannot have each other as a part.
Occurrents are not subject to change and so parthood between occurrents holds for all the times that the part exists. Many continuants are subject to change, so parthood between continuants will only hold at certain times, but this is difficult to specify in OWL. See https://code.google.com/p/obo-relations/wiki/ROAndTime
Parthood requires the part and the whole to have compatible classes: only an occurrent have an occurrent as part; only a process can have a process as part; only a continuant can have a continuant as part; only an independent continuant can have an independent continuant as part; only a specifically dependent continuant can have a specifically dependent continuant as part; only a generically dependent continuant can have a generically dependent continuant as part. (This list is not exhaustive.)
A continuant cannot have an occurrent as part: use 'participates in'. An occurrent cannot have a continuant as part: use 'has participant'. An immaterial entity cannot have a material entity as part: use 'location of'. An independent continuant cannot have a specifically dependent continuant as part: use 'bearer of'. A specifically dependent continuant cannot have an independent continuant as part: use 'inheres in'.
has_part
BFO:0000051
chebi_ontology
external
protein
uberon
has_part
false
has_part
has part
has part
has_part
inheres-in_at
inheresInAt
b inheres_in c at t =Def. b is a dependent continuant & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [051-002])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'inheres in at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'inheres in@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO 2 Reference: Inherence is a subrelation of s-depends_on which holds between a dependent continuant and an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. Since dependent continuants cannot migrate from one independent continuant bearer to another, it follows that if b s-depends_on independent continuant c at some time, then b s-depends_on c at all times at which a exists. Inherence is in this sense redundantly time-indexed.For example, consider the particular instance of openness inhering in my mouth at t as I prepare to take a bite out of a donut, followed by a closedness at t+1 when I bite the donut and start chewing. The openness instance is then shortlived, and to say that it s-depends_on my mouth at all times at which this openness exists, means: at all times during this short life. Every time you make a fist, you make a new (instance of the universal) fist. (Every time your hand has the fist-shaped quality, there is created a new instance of the universal fist-shaped quality.)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant
(iff (inheresInAt a b t) (and (DependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [051-002]
inheres in at all times
b inheres_in c at t =Def. b is a dependent continuant & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [051-002])
(iff (inheresInAt a b t) (and (DependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [051-002]
bearer-of_st
bearerOfAt
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'bearer of at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'bearer of@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
bearer of at some time
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
realized-in
realizedIn
realized in
this disease is realized in this disease course
this fragility is realized in this shattering
this investigator role is realized in this investigation
is realized by
realized_in
[copied from inverse property 'realizes'] to say that b realizes c at t is to assert that there is some material entity d & b is a process which has participant d at t & c is a disposition or role of which d is bearer_of at t& the type instantiated by b is correlated with the type instantiated by c. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [059-003])
[copied from inverse property 'realizes'] to say that b realizes c at t is to assert that there is some material entity d & b is a process which has participant d at t & c is a disposition or role of which d is bearer_of at t& the type instantiated by b is correlated with the type instantiated by c. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [059-003])
if a realizable entity b is realized in a process p, then p stands in the has_participant relation to the bearer of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [106-002])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (Process y) (realizesAt y x t) (bearerOfAt z x t)) (hasParticipantAt y z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [106-002]
Paraphrase of elucidation: a relation between a realizable entity and a process, where there is some material entity that is bearer of the realizable entity and participates in the process, and the realizable entity comes to be realized in the course of the process
realized in
if a realizable entity b is realized in a process p, then p stands in the has_participant relation to the bearer of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [106-002])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (RealizableEntity x) (Process y) (realizesAt y x t) (bearerOfAt z x t)) (hasParticipantAt y z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [106-002]
realizes
realizes
realizes
this disease course realizes this disease
this investigation realizes this investigator role
this shattering realizes this fragility
to say that b realizes c at t is to assert that there is some material entity d & b is a process which has participant d at t & c is a disposition or role of which d is bearer_of at t& the type instantiated by b is correlated with the type instantiated by c. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [059-003])
(forall (x y t) (if (realizesAt x y t) (and (Process x) (or (Disposition y) (Role y)) (exists (z) (and (MaterialEntity z) (hasParticipantAt x z t) (bearerOfAt z y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [059-003]
Paraphrase of elucidation: a relation between a process and a realizable entity, where there is some material entity that is bearer of the realizable entity and participates in the process, and the realizable entity comes to be realized in the course of the process
realizes
to say that b realizes c at t is to assert that there is some material entity d & b is a process which has participant d at t & c is a disposition or role of which d is bearer_of at t& the type instantiated by b is correlated with the type instantiated by c. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [059-003])
(forall (x y t) (if (realizesAt x y t) (and (Process x) (or (Disposition y) (Role y)) (exists (z) (and (MaterialEntity z) (hasParticipantAt x z t) (bearerOfAt z y t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [059-003]
participates-in_st
participatesInAt
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has participant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has participant@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: Spatial regions do not participate in processes.
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region, specifically dependent continuant, generically dependent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] BFO2 Reference: process
[copied from inverse property 'has participant at some time'] has_participant is an instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a temporal region at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [086-003])
BFO:0000056
uberon
participates_in
participates_in
participates in
participates in at some time
preceded by
X preceded_by Y iff: end(Y) before_or_simultaneous_with start(X)
x is preceded by y if and only if the time point at which y ends is before or equivalent to the time point at which x starts. Formally: x preceded by y iff ω(y) <= α(x), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point.
An example is: translation preceded_by transcription; aging preceded_by development (not however death preceded_by aging). Where derives_from links classes of continuants, preceded_by links classes of processes. Clearly, however, these two relations are not independent of each other. Thus if cells of type C1 derive_from cells of type C, then any cell division involving an instance of C1 in a given lineage is preceded_by cellular processes involving an instance of C. The assertion P preceded_by P1 tells us something about Ps in general: that is, it tells us something about what happened earlier, given what we know about what happened later. Thus it does not provide information pointing in the opposite direction, concerning instances of P1 in general; that is, that each is such as to be succeeded by some instance of P. Note that an assertion to the effect that P preceded_by P1 is rather weak; it tells us little about the relations between the underlying instances in virtue of which the preceded_by relation obtains. Typically we will be interested in stronger relations, for example in the relation immediately_preceded_by, or in relations which combine preceded_by with a condition to the effect that the corresponding instances of P and P1 share participants, or that their participants are connected by relations of derivation, or (as a first step along the road to a treatment of causality) that the one process in some way affects (for example, initiates or regulates) the other.
is preceded by
preceded_by
http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/#OBO_REL:preceded_by
BFO:0000062
is preceded by
takes place after
uberon
preceded_by
preceded_by
preceded by
preceded_by
is preceded by
SIO:000249
takes place after
Allen:precedes
precedes
x precedes y if and only if the time point at which x ends is before or equivalent to the time point at which y starts. Formally: x precedes y iff ω(x) <= α(y), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point.
BFO:0000063
uberon
precedes
precedes
precedes
precedes
occurs-in
occursIn
occurs in
b occurs_in c =def b is a process and c is a material entity or immaterial entity& there exists a spatiotemporal region r and b occupies_spatiotemporal_region r.& forall(t) if b exists_at t then c exists_at t & there exist spatial regions s and s’ where & b spatially_projects_onto s at t& c is occupies_spatial_region s’ at t& s is a proper_continuant_part_of s’ at t
b occurs_in c =def b is a process and c is a material entity or immaterial entity& there exists a spatiotemporal region r and b occupies_spatiotemporal_region r.& forall(t) if b exists_at t then c exists_at t & there exist spatial regions s and s’ where & b spatially_projects_onto s at t& c is occupies_spatial_region s’ at t& s is a proper_continuant_part_of s’ at t [XXX-001
occurs_in
unfolds in
unfolds_in
BFO:0000066
external
occurs_in
occurs_in
Paraphrase of definition: a relation between a process and an independent continuant, in which the process takes place entirely within the independent continuant
occurs in
occurs in
contains-process
containsProcess
site of
[copied from inverse property 'occurs in'] b occurs_in c =def b is a process and c is a material entity or immaterial entity& there exists a spatiotemporal region r and b occupies_spatiotemporal_region r.& forall(t) if b exists_at t then c exists_at t & there exist spatial regions s and s’ where & b spatially_projects_onto s at t& c is occupies_spatial_region s’ at t& s is a proper_continuant_part_of s’ at t
[copied from inverse property 'occurs in'] b occurs_in c =def b is a process and c is a material entity or immaterial entity& there exists a spatiotemporal region r and b occupies_spatiotemporal_region r.& forall(t) if b exists_at t then c exists_at t & there exist spatial regions s and s’ where & b spatially_projects_onto s at t& c is occupies_spatial_region s’ at t& s is a proper_continuant_part_of s’ at t [XXX-001
BFO:0000067
uberon
contains_process
contains_process
Paraphrase of definition: a relation between an independent continuant and a process, in which the process takes place entirely within the independent continuant
contains process
contains process
s-depends-on_at
specificallyDependsOn
A pain s-depends_on the organism that is experiencing the pain
a gait s-depends_on the walking object. (All at some specific time.)
a shape s-depends_on the shaped object
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of headache s-depends_on some head
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of temperature s-depends_on some organism
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: a process of cell death s-depends_on a cell
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: an instance of seeing (a relational process) s-depends_on some organism and on some seen entity, which may be an occurrent or a continuant
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of answering a question is dependent on a prior process of asking a question
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of obeying a command is dependent on a prior process of issuing a command
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of hitting a ball with a cricket bat
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of paying cash to a merchant in exchange for a bag of figs
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of buying and the associated process of selling
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of increasing the volume of a portion of gas while temperature remains constant and the associated process of decreasing the pressure exerted by the gas
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: in a game of chess the process of playing with the white pieces is mutually dependent on the process of playing with the black pieces
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: football match on the players, the ground, the ball
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: handwave on a hand
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the hue, saturation and brightness of a color [45
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the pitch, timbre and volume of a tone [45
the two-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the roles of husband and wife [20
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'specifically depends on at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'specifically depends on@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO 2 Reference: An entity – for example an act of communication or a game of football – can s-depends_on more than one entity. Complex phenomena for example in the psychological and social realms (such as inferring, commanding and requesting) or in the realm of multi-organismal biological processes (such as infection and resistance), will involve multiple families of dependence relations, involving both continuants and occurrents [1, 4, 28
BFO 2 Reference: S-dependence is just one type of dependence among many; it is what, in the literature, is referred to as ‘existential dependence’ [87, 46, 65, 20
BFO 2 Reference: the relation of s-depends_on does not in every case require simultaneous existence of its relata. Note the difference between such cases and the cases of continuant universals defined historically: the act of answering depends existentially on the prior act of questioning; the human being who was baptized or who answered a question does not himself depend existentially on the prior act of baptism or answering. He would still exist even if these acts had never taken place.
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant\; process; process boundary
To say that b s-depends_on a at t is to say that b and c do not share common parts & b is of its nature such that it cannot exist unless c exists & b is not a boundary of c and b is not a site of which c is the host [64
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
specifically depends on at all times
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
f-of_at
functionOfAt
a function_of b at t =Def. a is a function and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [067-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'function of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'function of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (functionOf a b t) (and (Function a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [067-001]
function of at all times
a function_of b at t =Def. a is a function and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [067-001])
(iff (functionOf a b t) (and (Function a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [067-001]
q-of_at
qualityOfAt
b quality_of c at t = Def. b is a quality & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [056-002])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'quality of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'quality of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (qualityOfAt a b t) (and (Quality a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [056-002]
quality of at all times
(iff (qualityOfAt a b t) (and (Quality a) (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [056-002]
b quality_of c at t = Def. b is a quality & c is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region & b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [056-002])
r-of_at
roleOfAt
a role_of b at t =Def. a is a role and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [065-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'role of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'role of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (roleOfAt a b t) (and (Role a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [065-001]
role of at all times
a role_of b at t =Def. a is a role and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [065-001])
(iff (roleOfAt a b t) (and (Role a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [065-001]
located-in_at
locatedInAt
Mary located_in Salzburg
the Empire State Building located_in New York.
this portion of cocaine located_in this portion of blood
this stem cell located_in this portion of bone marrow
your arm located_in your body
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'located in at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'located in@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
located in at all times
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
located-at-r_st
occupiesSpatialRegionAt
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'occupies spatial region at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'occupies spatial region@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
BFO2 Reference: spatial region
b occupies_spatial_region r at t means that r is a spatial region in which independent continuant b is exactly located (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [041-002])
every region r is occupies_spatial_region r at all times. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [042-002])
if b occupies_spatial_region r at t & b continuant_part_of b at t, then there is some r which is continuant_part_of r at t such that b occupies_spatial_region r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [043-001])
(forall (r t) (if (Region r) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt r r t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [042-002]
(forall (x r t) (if (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r t) (and (SpatialRegion r) (IndependentContinuant x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [041-002]
(forall (x y r_1 t) (if (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r_1 t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (exists (r_2) (and (continuantPartOfAt r_2 r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt y r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [043-001]
occupies spatial region at some time
b occupies_spatial_region r at t means that r is a spatial region in which independent continuant b is exactly located (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [041-002])
every region r is occupies_spatial_region r at all times. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [042-002])
if b occupies_spatial_region r at t & b continuant_part_of b at t, then there is some r which is continuant_part_of r at t such that b occupies_spatial_region r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [043-001])
(forall (r t) (if (Region r) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt r r t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [042-002]
(forall (x r t) (if (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r t) (and (SpatialRegion r) (IndependentContinuant x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [041-002]
(forall (x y r_1 t) (if (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt x r_1 t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (exists (r_2) (and (continuantPartOfAt r_2 r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt y r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [043-001]
has-f_st
hasFunctionAt
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has function at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has function@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has function at some time
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has-q_st
has quality at some time
has-r_st
hasRoleAt
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has role at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has role@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has role at some time
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has-g-dep_st
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'generically depends on at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'generically depends on@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] BFO2 Reference: generically dependent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'generically depends on at some time'] b g-depends on c at t1 means: b exists at t1 and c exists at t1 & for some type B it holds that (c instantiates B at t1) & necessarily, for all t (if b exists at t then some instance_of B exists at t) & not (b s-depends_on c at t1). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [072-002])
has generic dependent at some time
d-of_at
dispositionOfAt
a disposition_of b at t =Def. a is a disposition and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [066-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'disposition of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'disposition of@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (dispositionOf a b t) (and (Disposition a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [066-001]
disposition of at all times
a disposition_of b at t =Def. a is a disposition and a inheres_in b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [066-001])
(iff (dispositionOf a b t) (and (Disposition a) (inheresInAt a b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [066-001]
exists-at
existsAt
BFO2 Reference: entity
BFO2 Reference: temporal region
b exists_at t means: b is an entity which exists at some temporal region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [118-002])
exists at
b exists_at t means: b is an entity which exists at some temporal region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [118-002])
has-d_st
hasDispositionAt
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has disposition at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has disposition@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
has disposition at some time
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
has-material-basis_at
hasMaterialBasisAt
the material basis of John’s disposition to cough is the viral infection in John’s upper respiratory tract
the material basis of the disposition to wear unevenly of John’s tires is the worn suspension of his car.
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has material basis at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has material basis@en(x,y,t)'.
b has_material_basis c at t means: b is a disposition & c is a material entity & there is some d bearer_of b at t& c continuant_part_of d at t& d has_disposition b at t because c continuant_part_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [071-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (hasMaterialBasisAt x y t) (and (Disposition x) (MaterialEntity y) (exists (z) (and (bearerOfAt z x t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t) (exists (w) (and (Disposition w) (if (hasDisposition z w) (continuantPartOfAt y z t))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [071-002]
has material basis at all times
b has_material_basis c at t means: b is a disposition & c is a material entity & there is some d bearer_of b at t& c continuant_part_of d at t& d has_disposition b at t because c continuant_part_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [071-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (hasMaterialBasisAt x y t) (and (Disposition x) (MaterialEntity y) (exists (z) (and (bearerOfAt z x t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t) (exists (w) (and (Disposition w) (if (hasDisposition z w) (continuantPartOfAt y z t))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [071-002]
o-has-part
hasOccurrentPart
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] Mary’s 5th birthday occurrent_part_of Mary’s life
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] The process of a footballer’s heart beating once is an occurrent part but not a temporal_part of a game of football.
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] the first set of the tennis match occurrent_part_of the tennis match.
b has_occurrent_part c = Def. c occurrent_part_of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [007-001])
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] BFO2 Reference: occurrent
[copied from inverse property 'part of occurrent'] b occurrent_part_of c =Def. b is a part of c & b and c are occurrents. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [003-002])
(iff (hasOccurrentPart a b) (occurrentPartOf b a)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [007-001]
has occurrent part
b has_occurrent_part c = Def. c occurrent_part_of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [007-001])
(iff (hasOccurrentPart a b) (occurrentPartOf b a)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [007-001]
o-has-ppart
hasProperOccurrentPart
[copied from inverse property 'proper part of occurrent'] b proper_occurrent_part_of c =Def. b occurrent_part_of c & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [005-001])
b has_proper_occurrent_part c = Def. c proper_occurrent_part_of b. [XXX-001
has proper occurrent part
has-profile
has profile
has-t-part
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] the 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life\. The first quarter of a game of football is a temporal part of the whole game\. The process of your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the entire process of your heart beating.\ The 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] the process boundary which separates the 3rd and 4th years of your life.
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the process of your heart beating
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] b proper_temporal_part_of c =Def. b temporal_part_of c & not (b = c). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [116-001])
[copied from inverse property 'temporal part of'] b temporal_part_of c =Def.b occurrent_part_of c & & for some temporal region t, b occupies_temporal_region t & for all occurrents d, t (if d occupies_temporal_region t & t? occurrent_part_of t then (d occurrent_part_of a iff d occurrent_part_of b)). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [078-003])
has temporal part
r-location-of_st
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'occupies spatial region at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'occupies spatial region@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] BFO2 Reference: spatial region
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatial region at some time'] b occupies_spatial_region r at t means that r is a spatial region in which independent continuant b is exactly located (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [041-002])
has spatial occupant at some time
has-s-dep_st
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] A pain s-depends_on the organism that is experiencing the pain
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] a gait s-depends_on the walking object. (All at some specific time.)
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] a shape s-depends_on the shaped object
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of headache s-depends_on some head
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of temperature s-depends_on some organism
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: a process of cell death s-depends_on a cell
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: an instance of seeing (a relational process) s-depends_on some organism and on some seen entity, which may be an occurrent or a continuant
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of answering a question is dependent on a prior process of asking a question
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of obeying a command is dependent on a prior process of issuing a command
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of hitting a ball with a cricket bat
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of paying cash to a merchant in exchange for a bag of figs
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of buying and the associated process of selling
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of increasing the volume of a portion of gas while temperature remains constant and the associated process of decreasing the pressure exerted by the gas
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: in a game of chess the process of playing with the white pieces is mutually dependent on the process of playing with the black pieces
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: football match on the players, the ground, the ball
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: handwave on a hand
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the hue, saturation and brightness of a color [45
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the pitch, timbre and volume of a tone [45
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] the two-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the roles of husband and wife [20
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'specifically depends on at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'specifically depends on@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: An entity – for example an act of communication or a game of football – can s-depends_on more than one entity. Complex phenomena for example in the psychological and social realms (such as inferring, commanding and requesting) or in the realm of multi-organismal biological processes (such as infection and resistance), will involve multiple families of dependence relations, involving both continuants and occurrents [1, 4, 28
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: S-dependence is just one type of dependence among many; it is what, in the literature, is referred to as ‘existential dependence’ [87, 46, 65, 20
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO 2 Reference: the relation of s-depends_on does not in every case require simultaneous existence of its relata. Note the difference between such cases and the cases of continuant universals defined historically: the act of answering depends existentially on the prior act of questioning; the human being who was baptized or who answered a question does not himself depend existentially on the prior act of baptism or answering. He would still exist even if these acts had never taken place.
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant\; process; process boundary
[copied from inverse property 'specifically depends on at some time'] To say that b s-depends_on a at t is to say that b and c do not share common parts & b is of its nature such that it cannot exist unless c exists & b is not a boundary of c and b is not a site of which c is the host [64
has specific dependent at some time
occupied-by
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatiotemporal region'] BFO 2 Reference: The occupies_spatiotemporal_region and occupies_temporal_region relations are the counterpart, on the occurrent side, of the relation occupies_spatial_region.
[copied from inverse property 'occupies spatiotemporal region'] p occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the spatiotemporal region s which is its spatiotemporal extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [082-003])
has spatiotemporal occupant
material-basis-of_st
material basis of at some time
member-part-of_st
memberPartOfAt
each piece in a chess set is a member part of the chess set; each Beatle in the collection called The Beatles is a member part of The Beatles.
each tree in a forest is a member_part of the forest
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'member part of at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'member part of@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: object
BFO2 Reference: object aggregate
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
member part of at some time
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
occupies
occupiesSpatiotemporalRegion
BFO 2 Reference: The occupies_spatiotemporal_region and occupies_temporal_region relations are the counterpart, on the occurrent side, of the relation occupies_spatial_region.
p occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the spatiotemporal region s which is its spatiotemporal extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [082-003])
occupies spatiotemporal region
p occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the spatiotemporal region s which is its spatiotemporal extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [082-003])
o-part-of
occurrentPartOf
Mary’s 5th birthday occurrent_part_of Mary’s life
The process of a footballer’s heart beating once is an occurrent part but not a temporal_part of a game of football.
the first set of the tennis match occurrent_part_of the tennis match.
[copied from inverse property 'has occurrent part'] b has_occurrent_part c = Def. c occurrent_part_of b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [007-001])
BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
BFO2 Reference: occurrent
b occurrent_part_of c =Def. b is a part of c & b and c are occurrents. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [003-002])
occurrent_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [123-001])
occurrent_part_of is reflexive (every occurrent entity is an occurrent_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [113-002])
occurrent_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [112-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [125-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [124-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (occurrentPartOf z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [124-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (occurrentPartOf y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [123-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (occurrentPartOf v x t) (occurrentPartOf v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (occurrentPartOf w u t) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [125-001]
(forall (x y z) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y z)) (occurrentPartOf x z))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [112-001]
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (occurrentPartOf x x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [113-002]
part of occurrent
b occurrent_part_of c =Def. b is a part of c & b and c are occurrents. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [003-002])
occurrent_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [123-001])
occurrent_part_of is reflexive (every occurrent entity is an occurrent_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [113-002])
occurrent_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [112-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [125-001])
occurrent_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [124-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (occurrentPartOf z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [124-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y t) (occurrentPartOf y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [123-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (occurrentPartOf v x t) (occurrentPartOf v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (occurrentPartOf w u t) (and (occurrentPartOf w x t) (occurrentPartOf w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [125-001]
(forall (x y z) (if (and (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y z)) (occurrentPartOf x z))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [112-001]
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (occurrentPartOf x x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [113-002]
profile-of
processProfileOf
process profile of
t-ppart-of
properTemporalPartOf
proper temporal part of
c-ppart-of_at
properContinuantPartOfAt
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'proper part of continuant at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'proper part of continuant@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
proper part of continuant at all times
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
o-ppart-of
properOccurrentPartOf
[copied from inverse property 'has proper occurrent part'] b has_proper_occurrent_part c = Def. c proper_occurrent_part_of b. [XXX-001
b proper_occurrent_part_of c =Def. b occurrent_part_of c & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [005-001])
(iff (properOccurrentPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [005-001]
proper part of occurrent
b proper_occurrent_part_of c =Def. b occurrent_part_of c & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [005-001])
(iff (properOccurrentPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [005-001]
t-part-of
temporalPartOf
the 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life\. The first quarter of a game of football is a temporal part of the whole game\. The process of your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the entire process of your heart beating.\ The 4th year of your life is a temporal part of your life
the process boundary which separates the 3rd and 4th years of your life.
your heart beating from 4pm to 5pm today is a temporal part of the process of your heart beating
b proper_temporal_part_of c =Def. b temporal_part_of c & not (b = c). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [116-001])
b temporal_part_of c =Def.b occurrent_part_of c & & for some temporal region t, b occupies_temporal_region t & for all occurrents d, t (if d occupies_temporal_region t & t? occurrent_part_of t then (d occurrent_part_of a iff d occurrent_part_of b)). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [078-003])
if b proper_temporal_part_of c, then there is some d which is a proper_temporal_part_of c and which shares no parts with b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [117-002])
(forall (x y) (if (properTemporalPartOf x y) (exists (z) (and (properTemporalPartOf z y) (not (exists (w) (and (temporalPartOf w x) (temporalPartOf w z)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [117-002]
(iff (properTemporalPartOf a b) (and (temporalPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [116-001]
(iff (temporalPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion a t))) (forall (c t_1) (if (and (Occurrent c) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion c t_1) (occurrentPartOf t_1 r)) (iff (occurrentPartOf c a) (occurrentPartOf c b)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [078-003]
temporal part of
b proper_temporal_part_of c =Def. b temporal_part_of c & not (b = c). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [116-001])
b temporal_part_of c =Def.b occurrent_part_of c & & for some temporal region t, b occupies_temporal_region t & for all occurrents d, t (if d occupies_temporal_region t & t? occurrent_part_of t then (d occurrent_part_of a iff d occurrent_part_of b)). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [078-003])
if b proper_temporal_part_of c, then there is some d which is a proper_temporal_part_of c and which shares no parts with b. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [117-002])
(forall (x y) (if (properTemporalPartOf x y) (exists (z) (and (properTemporalPartOf z y) (not (exists (w) (and (temporalPartOf w x) (temporalPartOf w z)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [117-002]
(iff (properTemporalPartOf a b) (and (temporalPartOf a b) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [116-001]
(iff (temporalPartOf a b) (and (occurrentPartOf a b) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion a t))) (forall (c t_1) (if (and (Occurrent c) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion c t_1) (occurrentPartOf t_1 r)) (iff (occurrentPartOf c a) (occurrentPartOf c b)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [078-003]
st-projects-onto-s_st
projects onto spatial region at some time
s-projection-of-st_st
spatial projection of spatiotemporal at some time
st-projects-onto-t
projects onto temporal region
t-projection-of-st
temporal projection of spatiotemporal
spans
occupiesTemporalRegion
p occupies_temporal_region t. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the temporal region t upon which the spatiotemporal region p occupies_spatiotemporal_region projects. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [132-001])
occupies temporal region
p occupies_temporal_region t. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the temporal region t upon which the spatiotemporal region p occupies_spatiotemporal_region projects. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [132-001])
span-of
spanOf
[copied from inverse property 'occupies temporal region'] p occupies_temporal_region t. This is a primitive relation between an occurrent p and the temporal region t upon which the spatiotemporal region p occupies_spatiotemporal_region projects. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [132-001])
has temporal occupant
during-which-exists
[copied from inverse property 'exists at'] BFO2 Reference: entity
[copied from inverse property 'exists at'] BFO2 Reference: temporal region
[copied from inverse property 'exists at'] b exists_at t means: b is an entity which exists at some temporal region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [118-002])
during which exists
bearer-of_at
bearerOfAt
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'bearer of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'bearer of@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
bearer of at all times
b bearer_of c at t =Def. c s-depends_on b at t & b is an independent continuant that is not a spatial region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [053-004])
(iff (bearerOfAt a b t) (and (specificallyDependsOnAt b a t) (IndependentContinuant a) (not (SpatialRegion a)) (existsAt b t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [053-004]
has-q_at
has quality at all times
has-f_at
hasFunctionAt
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has function at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has function@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has function at all times
a has_function b at t =Def. b function_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [070-001])
(iff (hasFunctionAt a b t) (functionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [070-001]
has-r_at
hasRoleAt
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has role at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has role@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has role at all times
a has_role b at t =Def. b role_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [068-001])
(iff (hasRoleAt a b t) (roleOfAt b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [068-001]
has-d_at
hasDispositionAt
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has disposition at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has disposition@en(x,y,t)'.
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
has disposition at all times
a has_disposition b at t =Def. b disposition_of a at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [069-001])
(iff (hasDispositionAt a b t) (dispositionOf b a t)) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [069-001]
material-basis-of_at
material basis of at all times
participates-in_at
participatesInAt
participates in at all times
has-s-dep_at
has specific dependent at all times
s-depends-on_st
specificallyDependsOn
A pain s-depends_on the organism that is experiencing the pain
a gait s-depends_on the walking object. (All at some specific time.)
a shape s-depends_on the shaped object
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of headache s-depends_on some head
one-sided s-dependence of a dependent continuant on an independent continuant: an instance of temperature s-depends_on some organism
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: a process of cell death s-depends_on a cell
one-sided s-dependence of a process on something: an instance of seeing (a relational process) s-depends_on some organism and on some seen entity, which may be an occurrent or a continuant
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of answering a question is dependent on a prior process of asking a question
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on another: a process of obeying a command is dependent on a prior process of issuing a command
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of hitting a ball with a cricket bat
one-sided s-dependence of one occurrent on multiple independent continuants: a relational process of paying cash to a merchant in exchange for a bag of figs
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of buying and the associated process of selling
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: a process of increasing the volume of a portion of gas while temperature remains constant and the associated process of decreasing the pressure exerted by the gas
reciprocal s-dependence between occurrents: in a game of chess the process of playing with the white pieces is mutually dependent on the process of playing with the black pieces
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: football match on the players, the ground, the ball
the one-sided dependence of an occurrent on an independent continuant: handwave on a hand
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the hue, saturation and brightness of a color [45
the three-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the pitch, timbre and volume of a tone [45
the two-sided reciprocal s-dependence of the roles of husband and wife [20
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'specifically depends on at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'specifically depends on@en'(x,y,t)
BFO 2 Reference: An entity – for example an act of communication or a game of football – can s-depends_on more than one entity. Complex phenomena for example in the psychological and social realms (such as inferring, commanding and requesting) or in the realm of multi-organismal biological processes (such as infection and resistance), will involve multiple families of dependence relations, involving both continuants and occurrents [1, 4, 28
BFO 2 Reference: S-dependence is just one type of dependence among many; it is what, in the literature, is referred to as ‘existential dependence’ [87, 46, 65, 20
BFO 2 Reference: the relation of s-depends_on does not in every case require simultaneous existence of its relata. Note the difference between such cases and the cases of continuant universals defined historically: the act of answering depends existentially on the prior act of questioning; the human being who was baptized or who answered a question does not himself depend existentially on the prior act of baptism or answering. He would still exist even if these acts had never taken place.
BFO2 Reference: specifically dependent continuant\; process; process boundary
To say that b s-depends_on a at t is to say that b and c do not share common parts & b is of its nature such that it cannot exist unless c exists & b is not a boundary of c and b is not a site of which c is the host [64
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
specifically depends on at some time
If b is s-depends_on something at some time, then b is not a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [052-001])
If b s-depends_on something at t, then there is some c, which is an independent continuant and not a spatial region, such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [136-001])
If occurrent b s-depends_on some independent continuant c at t, then b s-depends_on c at every time at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [015-002])
an entity does not s-depend_on any of its (continuant or occurrent) parts or on anything it is part of. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [013-002])
if b s-depends_on c at t & c s-depends_on d at t then b s-depends_on d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [054-002])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Entity x) (or (continuantPartOfAt y x t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (occurrentPartOf x y) (occurrentPartOf y x))) (not (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [013-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (Occurrent x) (IndependentContinuant y) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t_1))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [015-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (exists (z) (and (IndependentContinuant z) (not (SpatialRegion z)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [136-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt y z t)) (specificallyDependsOnAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [054-002]
(forall (x) (if (exists (y t) (specificallyDependsOnAt x y t)) (not (MaterialEntity x)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [052-001]
located-in_st
locatedInAt
Mary located_in Salzburg
the Empire State Building located_in New York.
this portion of cocaine located_in this portion of blood
this stem cell located_in this portion of bone marrow
your arm located_in your body
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'located in at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'located in@en'(x,y,t)
BFO2 Reference: independent continuant
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
located in at some time
b located_in c at t = Def. b and c are independent continuants, and the region at which b is located at t is a (proper or improper) continuant_part_of the region at which c is located at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [045-001])
Located_in is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [046-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b continuant_part_of c at t & c located_in d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [048-001])
for all independent continuants b, c, and d: if b located_in c at t & c continuant_part_of d at t, then b located_in d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [049-001])
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [048-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (IndependentContinuant y) (IndependentContinuant z) (locatedInAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [049-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (locatedInAt x y t) (locatedInAt y z t)) (locatedInAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [046-001]
(iff (locatedInAt a b t) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (IndependentContinuant b) (exists (r_1 r_2) (and (occupiesSpatialRegionAt a r_1 t) (occupiesSpatialRegionAt b r_2 t) (continuantPartOfAt r_1 r_2 t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [045-001]
member-part-of_at
memberPartOfAt
each piece in a chess set is a member part of the chess set; each Beatle in the collection called The Beatles is a member part of The Beatles.
each tree in a forest is a member_part of the forest
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'member part of at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'member part of@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO2 Reference: object
BFO2 Reference: object aggregate
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
member part of at all times
b member_part_of c at t =Def. b is an object & there is at t a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of c into objects x1, …, xn (for some n > 1) with b = xi for some 1 ? i ? n. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [026-004])
if b member_part_of c at t then b continuant_part_of c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [104-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (memberPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [104-001]
c-ppart-of_st
properContinuantPartOfAt
[copied from inverse property 'has proper continuant part at some time'] b has_proper_continuant_part c at t = Def. c proper_continuant_part_of b at t. [XXX-001
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'proper part of continuant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'proper part of continuant@en'(x,y,t)
[copied from inverse property 'has proper continuant part at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has proper continuant part at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has proper continuant part@en'(x,y,t)
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
proper part of continuant at some time
b proper_continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b continuant_part_of c at t & b and c are not identical. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [004-001])
(iff (properContinuantPartOfAt a b t) (and (continuantPartOfAt a b t) (not (= a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [004-001]
c-part-of_st
continuantPartOfAt
Mary’s arm continuant_part_of Mary in the time of her life prior to her operation
the Northern hemisphere of the planet Earth is a part of the planet Earth at all times at which the planet Earth exists.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at some time'] b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'part of continuant at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'part of continuant@en'(x,y,t)
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
BFO2 Reference: continuant
BFO2 Reference: continuantThe range for ‘t’ (as in all cases throughout this document unless otherwise specified) is: temporal region.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at some time'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has continuant part at some time@en' is: exists t, exists_at(x,t) & exists_at(y,t) & 'has continuant part@en'(x,y,t)
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
part of continuant at some time
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
c-part-of_at
continuantPartOfAt
Mary’s arm continuant_part_of Mary in the time of her life prior to her operation
the Northern hemisphere of the planet Earth is a part of the planet Earth at all times at which the planet Earth exists.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times that part exists'] forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'has continuant part'(x,y,t)
Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'part of continuant at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'part of continuant@en(x,y,t)'.
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
BFO 2 Reference: a (continuant or occurrent) part of itself. We appreciate that this is counterintuitive for some users, since it implies for example that President Obama is a part of himself. However it brings benefits in simplifying the logical formalism, and it captures an important feature of identity, namely that it is the limit case of mereological inclusion.
BFO2 Reference: continuant
BFO2 Reference: continuantThe range for ‘t’ (as in all cases throughout this document unless otherwise specified) is: temporal region.
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times that part exists'] This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'part of continuant at all times'
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
part of continuant at all times
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are in some cases continuant parts of their material hosts. Thus the hold of a ship, for example, is a part of the ship; it may itself have parts, which may have names (used for example by ship stow planners, customs inspectors, and the like). Immaterial entities under both 1. and 2. can be of zero, one, two or three dimensions. We define:a(immaterial entity)[Definition: a is an immaterial entity = Def. a is an independent continuant that has no material entities as parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [028-001])
b continuant_part_of c at t =Def. b is a part of c at t & t is a time & b and c are continuants. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [002-001])
continuant_part_of is antisymmetric. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [120-001])
continuant_part_of is reflexive (every continuant entity is a continuant_part_of itself). (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [111-002])
continuant_part_of is transitive. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [110-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies unique product. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [122-001])
continuant_part_of satisfies weak supplementation. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [121-001])
if b continuant_part_of c at t and b is an independent continuant, then b is located_in c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [047-002])
(forall (x t) (if (Continuant x) (continuantPartOfAt x x t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [111-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (IndependentContinuant x)) (locatedInAt x y t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [047-002]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (= x y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [120-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (not (= x y))) (exists (z) (and (continuantPartOfAt z y t) (not (exists (w) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w z t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [121-001]
(forall (x y t) (if (exists (v) (and (continuantPartOfAt v x t) (continuantPartOfAt v y t))) (exists (z) (forall (u w) (iff (iff (continuantPartOfAt w u t) (and (continuantPartOfAt w x t) (continuantPartOfAt w y t))) (= z u)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [122-001]
(forall (x y z t) (if (and (continuantPartOfAt x y t) (continuantPartOfAt y z t)) (continuantPartOfAt x z t))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [110-001]
(iff (ImmaterialEntity a) (and (IndependentContinuant a) (not (exists (b t) (and (MaterialEntity b) (continuantPartOfAt b a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [028-001]
has-t-ppart
has proper temporal part
history-of
historyOf
[copied from inverse property 'has history'] b has_history c iff c history_of b [XXX-001
b history_of c if c is a material entity or site and b is a history that is the unique history of cAxiom: if b history_of c and b history_of d then c=d [XXX-001
history of
has-history
hasHistory
b has_history c iff c history_of b [XXX-001
[copied from inverse property 'history of'] b history_of c if c is a material entity or site and b is a history that is the unique history of cAxiom: if b history_of c and b history_of d then c=d [XXX-001
has history
c-part-of-object_at
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times'] b has_continuant_part c at t = Def. c continuant_part_of b at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [006-001])
forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'part of continuant'(x,y,t)
This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'has continuant part at all times'
[copied from inverse property 'has continuant part at all times'] Alan Ruttenberg: This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance-level, relation. The BFO reading of the binary relation 'has continuant part at all times@en' is: forall(t) exists_at(x,t) -> exists_at(y,t) and 'has continuant part@en(x,y,t)'.
part of continuant at all times that whole exists
forall(t) exists_at(y,t) -> exists_at(x,t) and 'part of continuant'(x,y,t)
This is a binary version of a ternary time-indexed, instance level, relation. Unlike the rest of the temporalized relations which temporally quantify over existence of the subject of the relation, this relation temporally quantifies over the existence of the object of the relation. The relation is provided tentatively, to assess whether the GO needs such a relation. It is inverse of 'has continuant part at all times'
x anterior_to y iff x is further along the antero-posterior axis than y, towards the head. An antero-posterior axis is an axis that bisects an organism from head end to opposite end of body or tail: bearer
cjm
2009-07-31T02:15:46Z
BSPO:0000096
uberon
anterior_to
anterior_to
anterior_to
x anterior_to y iff x is further along the antero-posterior axis than y, towards the head. An antero-posterior axis is an axis that bisects an organism from head end to opposite end of body or tail: bearer
x distal_to y iff x is further along the proximo-distal axis than y, towards the appendage tip. A proximo-distal axis extends from tip of an appendage (distal) to where it joins the body (proximal).
BSPO:0000097
uberon
distal_to
distal_to
distal_to
x distal_to y iff x is further along the proximo-distal axis than y, towards the appendage tip. A proximo-distal axis extends from tip of an appendage (distal) to where it joins the body (proximal).
x dorsal_to y iff x is further along the dorso-ventral axis than y, towards the back. A dorso-ventral axis is an axis that bisects an organism from back (e.g. spinal column) to front (e.g. belly).
BSPO:0000098
uberon
dorsal_to
dorsal_to
dorsal_to
x dorsal_to y iff x is further along the dorso-ventral axis than y, towards the back. A dorso-ventral axis is an axis that bisects an organism from back (e.g. spinal column) to front (e.g. belly).
x posterior_to y iff x is further along the antero-posterior axis than y, towards the body/tail. An antero-posterior axis is an axis that bisects an organism from head end to opposite end of body or tail.
BSPO:0000099
caudal_to
uberon
posterior_to
posterior_to
posterior_to
x posterior_to y iff x is further along the antero-posterior axis than y, towards the body/tail. An antero-posterior axis is an axis that bisects an organism from head end to opposite end of body or tail.
x proximal_to y iff x is closer to the point of attachment with the body than y.
BSPO:0000100
uberon
proximal_to
proximal_to
proximal_to
x proximal_to y iff x is closer to the point of attachment with the body than y.
x ventral_to y iff x is further along the dorso-ventral axis than y, towards the front. A dorso-ventral axis is an axis that bisects an organism from back (e.g. spinal column) to front (e.g. belly).
BSPO:0000102
uberon
ventral_to
ventral_to
ventral_to
x ventral_to y iff x is further along the dorso-ventral axis than y, towards the front. A dorso-ventral axis is an axis that bisects an organism from back (e.g. spinal column) to front (e.g. belly).
Further away from the surface of the organism. Thus, the muscular layer is deep to the skin, but superficial to the intestines.
BSPO:0000107
uberon
deep_to
deep_to
deep_to
Further away from the surface of the organism. Thus, the muscular layer is deep to the skin, but superficial to the intestines.
Near the outer surface of the organism. Thus, skin is superficial to the muscle layer.
BSPO:0000108
uberon
superficial_to
superficial_to
superficial_to
Near the outer surface of the organism. Thus, skin is superficial to the muscle layer.
X in_left_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into left and right portions, X is part_of the left portion.
BSPO:0000120
uberon
in_left_side_of
in_left_side_of
in_left_side_of
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Modeling-paired-structures-Design-Pattern
X in_left_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into left and right portions, X is part_of the left portion.
BSPO:PATO_mtg_2009
X in_right_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into left and right portions, X is part_of the right portion.
BSPO:0000121
uberon
in_right_side_of
in_right_side_of
in_right_side_of
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Modeling-paired-structures-Design-Pattern
X in_right_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into left and right portions, X is part_of the right portion.
BSPO:PATO_mtg_2009
X posterior_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into two anterior and posterior portions, X is part_of the posterior portion.
BSPO:0000122
uberon
in_posterior_side_of
in_posterior_side_of
in_posterior_side_of
X posterior_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into two anterior and posterior portions, X is part_of the posterior portion.
BSPO:PATO_mtg_2009
X anterior_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into two anterior and posterior portions, X is part_of the anterior portion.
BSPO:0000123
uberon
in_anterior_side_of
in_anterior_side_of
in_anterior_side_of
X anterior_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into two anterior and posterior portions, X is part_of the anterior portion.
BSPO:PATO_mtg_2009
X proximal_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into distal and proximal portions, X is part_of the proximal portion.
BSPO:0000124
uberon
in_proximal_side_of
in_proximal_side_of
in_proximal_side_of
X proximal_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into distal and proximal portions, X is part_of the proximal portion.
BSPO:PATO_mtg_2009
X distal_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into distal and proximal portions, X is part_of the distal portion.
BSPO:0000125
uberon
in_distal_side_of
in_distal_side_of
in_distal_side_of
X distal_side_of Y <=> if Y is subdivided into distal and proximal portions, X is part_of the distal portion.
BSPO:PATO_mtg_2009
X in_lateral_side_of Y <=> if X is in_left_side_of Y or X is in_right_side_of Y. X is often, but not always a paired structure
BSPO:0000126
uberon
in_lateral_side_of
in_lateral_side_of
in_lateral_side_of
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Modeling-paired-structures-Design-Pattern
X in_lateral_side_of Y <=> if X is in_left_side_of Y or X is in_right_side_of Y. X is often, but not always a paired structure
X proximalmost_part_of Y <=> X is part_of Y and X is adjacent_to the proximal boundary of Y
BSPO:0001106
uberon
proximalmost_part_of
proximalmost_part_of
proximalmost_part_of
X proximalmost_part_of Y <=> X is part_of Y and X is adjacent_to the proximal boundary of Y
This relation holds when both the deep_to and ajdacent_to relationship similarly hold.
BSPO:0001107
uberon
immediately_deep_to
immediately_deep_to
immediately_deep_to
This relation holds when both the deep_to and ajdacent_to relationship similarly hold.
X distalmost_part_of Y <=> X is part_of Y and X is adjacent_to the distal boundary of Y
BSPO:0001108
uberon
distalmost_part_of
distalmost_part_of
distalmost_part_of
X distalmost_part_of Y <=> X is part_of Y and X is adjacent_to the distal boundary of Y
derives from patient having disease
has disease
is in cell line repository
is disease model for
derived from anatomic part
A person's name denotes the person. A variable name in a computer program denotes some piece of memory. Lexically equivalent strings can denote different things, for instance "Alan" can denote different people. In each case of use, there is a case of the denotation relation obtaining, between "Alan" and the person that is being named.
denotes is a primitive, instance-level, relation obtaining between an information content entity and some portion of reality. Denotation is what happens when someone creates an information content entity E in order to specifically refer to something. The only relation between E and the thing is that E can be used to 'pick out' the thing. This relation connects those two together. Freedictionary.com sense 3: To signify directly; refer to specifically
2009-11-10 Alan Ruttenberg. Old definition said the following to emphasize the generic nature of this relation. We no longer have 'specifically denotes', which would have been primitive, so make this relation primitive.
g denotes r =def
r is a portion of reality
there is some c that is a concretization of g
every c that is a concretization of g specifically denotes r
person:Alan Ruttenberg
Conversations with Barry Smith, Werner Ceusters, Bjoern Peters, Michel Dumontier, Melanie Courtot, James Malone, Bill Hogan
denotes
has material basis in
has_material_basis_in
is_specified_input_of
some Autologous EBV(Epstein-Barr virus)-transformed B-LCL (B lymphocyte cell line) is_input_for instance of Chromum Release Assay described at https://wiki.cbil.upenn.edu/obiwiki/index.php/Chromium_Release_assay
A relation between a planned process and a continuant participating in that process that is not created during the process. The presence of the continuant during the process is explicitly specified in the plan specification which the process realizes the concretization of.
Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON:Bjoern Peters
is_specified_input_of
is_specified_output_of
is_specified_output_of
A relation between a planned process and a continuant participating in that process. The presence of the continuant at the end of the process is explicitly specified in the objective specification which the process realizes the concretization of.
Alan Ruttenberg
PERSON:Bjoern Peters
is_specified_output_of
achieves_planned_objective
A cell sorting process achieves the objective specification 'material separation objective'
This relation obtains between a planned process and a objective specification when the criteria specified in the objective specification are met at the end of the planned process.
BP, AR, PPPB branch
PPPB branch derived
modified according to email thread from 1/23/09 in accordince with DT and PPPB branch
achieves_planned_objective
has grain
the relation of the cells in the finger of the skin to the finger, in which an indeterminate number of grains are parts of the whole by virtue of being grains in a collective that is part of the whole, and in which removing one granular part does not nec- essarily damage or diminish the whole. Ontological Whether there is a fixed, or nearly fixed number of parts - e.g. fingers of the hand, chambers of the heart, or wheels of a car - such that there can be a notion of a single one being missing, or whether, by contrast, the number of parts is indeterminate - e.g., cells in the skin of the hand, red cells in blood, or rubber molecules in the tread of the tire of the wheel of the car.
Discussion in Karslruhe with, among others, Alan Rector, Stefan Schulz, Marijke Keet, Melanie Courtot, and Alan Ruttenberg. Definition take from the definition of granular parthood in the cited paper. Needs work to put into standard form
PERSON: Alan Ruttenberg
PAPER: Granularity, scale and collectivity: When size does and does not matter, Alan Rector, Jeremy Rogers, Thomas Bittner, Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (2006) 333-349
has grain
objective_achieved_by
This relation obtains between a a objective specification and a planned process when the criteria specified in the objective specification are met at the end of the planned process.
OBI
OBI
objective_achieved_by
a 'part of continuant at some time' relation that incides a genome belongs to a organism.
Yongqun He, Bin Zhao
is genome of organism
a relation between a gene and the organism where this gene belongs to the organism in nature. It does not include a foreign gene that is transferred to an organism by a genetic engineering method.
Oliver He, Yue Liu
is gene of organism
An object property that represents a relation between a gene and an organism, where the gene comes from a pathogen and the organism is a host, and the mutant of the gene for the pathogen is attenuated in the host organism.
Edison Ong; Yongqun He; Yu Lin
gene mutant attenuated in host organism
An object property that represents a relation between a gene and an organism, where the gene is a virulence factor and the organism is a pathogen, and the mutant of the gene for the pathogen is attenuated in the host.
Edison Ong; Yongqun He
gene as virulence factor in pathogen
An object property that represents a relation between a gene and a cell line cell, where the gene comes from a pathogen and the cell line cell comes from a host, and the mutant of the gene for the pathogen is attenuated inside the cell line cell.
Edison Ong; Yongqun He
gene mutant attenuated in host cell line cell
An object property that represents a relation between a gene and a cell, where the gene comes from a pathogen and the cell comes from a host, and the mutant of the gene for the pathogen is attenuated inside the cell.
Edison Ong; Yongqun He; Yu Lin
gene mutant attenuated in host cell
An object property that represents a relation between a gene and a host, where the gene comes from a pathogen, and the mutant of the gene for the pathogen is attenuated in the host.
Edison Ong; Yongqun He; Yu Lin
gene mutant attenuated in host
Edison Ong; Yongqun He; Yu Lin
has microbe mutated gene
An object property that represents a relation between a host-pathogen interaction process and an organism (or tissue or cell as part of the organism, or cell line cell derived from organism) which serves as the host that participates in the process.
Edison Ong; Yongqun He
has HPI host
An object property that represents a relation between a host-pathogen interaction process and an organism (or virus) which serves as the pathgen that participates in the process.
Edison Ong; Yongqun He
has HPI pathogen
Edison Ong; Yongqun He
has HPI host organism
Edison Ong; Yongqun He
has HPI host cell
Edison Ong; Yongqun He
has HPI host cell line cell
Edison Ong
gene encoding antigen
inheres in
this fragility inheres in this vase
this red color inheres in this apple
a relation between a specifically dependent continuant (the dependent) and an independent continuant (the bearer), in which the dependent specifically depends on the bearer for its existence
A dependent inheres in its bearer at all times for which the dependent exists.
inheres_in
inheres in
bearer of
this apple is bearer of this red color
this vase is bearer of this fragility
a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a specifically dependent continuant (the dependent), in which the dependent specifically depends on the bearer for its existence
A bearer can have many dependents, and its dependents can exist for different periods of time, but none of its dependents can exist when the bearer does not exist.
bearer_of
is bearer of
RO:0000053
uberon
bearer_of
bearer_of
bearer of
bearer of
participates in
this blood clot participates in this blood coagulation
this input material (or this output material) participates in this process
this investigator participates in this investigation
a relation between a continuant and a process, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process
participates_in
RO:0000056
protein
participates_in
false
participates_in
participates in
participates_in
has participant
this blood coagulation has participant this blood clot
this investigation has participant this investigator
this process has participant this input material (or this output material)
a relation between a process and a continuant, in which the continuant is somehow involved in the process
Has_participant is a primitive instance-level relation between a process, a continuant, and a time at which the continuant participates in some way in the process. The relation obtains, for example, when this particular process of oxygen exchange across this particular alveolar membrane has_participant this particular sample of hemoglobin at this particular time.
has_participant
http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/#OBO_REL:has_participant
has participant
A journal article is an information artifact that inheres in some number of printed journals. For each copy of the printed journal there is some quality that carries the journal article, such as a pattern of ink. The journal article (a generically dependent continuant) is concretized as the quality (a specifically dependent continuant), and both depend on that copy of the printed journal (an independent continuant).
An investigator reads a protocol and forms a plan to carry out an assay. The plan is a realizable entity (a specifically dependent continuant) that concretizes the protocol (a generically dependent continuant), and both depend on the investigator (an independent continuant). The plan is then realized by the assay (a process).
A relationship between a generically dependent continuant and a specifically dependent continuant, in which the generically dependent continuant depends on some independent continuant in virtue of the fact that the specifically dependent continuant also depends on that same independent continuant. A generically dependent continuant may be concretized as multiple specifically dependent continuants.
is concretized as
A journal article is an information artifact that inheres in some number of printed journals. For each copy of the printed journal there is some quality that carries the journal article, such as a pattern of ink. The quality (a specifically dependent continuant) concretizes the journal article (a generically dependent continuant), and both depend on that copy of the printed journal (an independent continuant).
An investigator reads a protocol and forms a plan to carry out an assay. The plan is a realizable entity (a specifically dependent continuant) that concretizes the protocol (a generically dependent continuant), and both depend on the investigator (an independent continuant). The plan is then realized by the assay (a process).
A relationship between a specifically dependent continuant and a generically dependent continuant, in which the generically dependent continuant depends on some independent continuant in virtue of the fact that the specifically dependent continuant also depends on that same independent continuant. Multiple specifically dependent continuants can concretize the same generically dependent continuant.
concretizes
this catalysis function is a function of this enzyme
a relation between a function and an independent continuant (the bearer), in which the function specifically depends on the bearer for its existence
A function inheres in its bearer at all times for which the function exists, however the function need not be realized at all the times that the function exists.
function_of
is function of
function of
this investigator role is a role of this person
a relation between a role and an independent continuant (the bearer), in which the role specifically depends on the bearer for its existence
A role inheres in its bearer at all times for which the role exists, however the role need not be realized at all the times that the role exists.
is role of
role_of
role of
this enzyme has function this catalysis function (more colloquially: this enzyme has this catalysis function)
a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a function, in which the function specifically depends on the bearer for its existence
A bearer can have many functions, and its functions can exist for different periods of time, but none of its functions can exist when the bearer does not exist. A function need not be realized at all the times that the function exists.
has_function
has function
a relation between an independent continuant (the bearer) and a disposition, in which the disposition specifically depends on the bearer for its existence
has disposition
inverse of has disposition
disposition of
derives from
this cell derives from this parent cell (cell division)
this nucleus derives from this parent nucleus (nuclear division)
a relation between two distinct material entities, the new entity and the old entity, in which the new entity begins to exist when the old entity ceases to exist, and the new entity inherits the significant portion of the matter of the old entity
This is a very general relation. More specific relations are preferred when applicable, such as 'directly develops from'.
derives_from
This relation is taken from the RO2005 version of RO. It may be obsoleted and replaced by relations with different definitions. See also the 'develops from' family of relations.
RO:0001000
protein
derives_from
derives_from
derives from
derives_from
derives_from
this parent cell derives into this cell (cell division)
this parent nucleus derives into this nucleus (nuclear division)
a relation between two distinct material entities, the old entity and the new entity, in which the new entity begins to exist when the old entity ceases to exist, and the new entity inherits the significant portion of the matter of the old entity
This is a very general relation. More specific relations are preferred when applicable, such as 'directly develops into'. To avoid making statements about a future that may not come to pass, it is often better to use the backward-looking 'derives from' rather than the forward-looking 'derives into'.
derives_into
derives into
is location of
my head is the location of my brain
this cage is the location of this rat
a relation between two independent continuants, the location and the target, in which the target is entirely within the location
Most location relations will only hold at certain times, but this is difficult to specify in OWL. See https://code.google.com/p/obo-relations/wiki/ROAndTime
location_of
RO:0001015
uberon
location_of
location_of
location of
location_of
contained in
Containment is location not involving parthood, and arises only where some immaterial continuant is involved.
Containment obtains in each case between material and immaterial continuants, for instance: lung contained_in thoracic cavity; bladder contained_in pelvic cavity. Hence containment is not a transitive relation. If c part_of c1 at t then we have also, by our definition and by the axioms of mereology applied to spatial regions, c located_in c1 at t. Thus, many examples of instance-level location relations for continuants are in fact cases of instance-level parthood. For material continuants location and parthood coincide. Containment is location not involving parthood, and arises only where some immaterial continuant is involved. To understand this relation, we first define overlap for continuants as follows: c1 overlap c2 at t =def for some c, c part_of c1 at t and c part_of c2 at t. The containment relation on the instance level can then be defined (see definition):
Intended meaning:
domain: material entity
range: spatial region or site (immaterial continuant)
contained_in
contained in
contains
RO:0001019
uberon
contains
contains
contains
contains
located in
my brain is located in my head
this rat is located in this cage
a relation between two independent continuants, the target and the location, in which the target is entirely within the location
Location as a relation between instances: The primitive instance-level relation c located_in r at t reflects the fact that each continuant is at any given time associated with exactly one spatial region, namely its exact location. Following we can use this relation to define a further instance-level location relation - not between a continuant and the region which it exactly occupies, but rather between one continuant and another. c is located in c1, in this sense, whenever the spatial region occupied by c is part_of the spatial region occupied by c1. Note that this relation comprehends both the relation of exact location between one continuant and another which obtains when r and r1 are identical (for example, when a portion of fluid exactly fills a cavity), as well as those sorts of inexact location relations which obtain, for example, between brain and head or between ovum and uterus
Most location relations will only hold at certain times, but this is difficult to specify in OWL. See https://code.google.com/p/obo-relations/wiki/ROAndTime
located_in
http://www.obofoundry.org/ro/#OBO_REL:located_in
RO:0001025
protein
uberon
located_in
located_in
located in
located_in
This is redundant with the more specific 'independent and not spatial region' constraint. We leave in the redundant axiom for use with reasoners that do not use negation.
This is redundant with the more specific 'independent and not spatial region' constraint. We leave in the redundant axiom for use with reasoners that do not use negation.
the surface of my skin is a 2D boundary of my body
a relation between a 2D immaterial entity (the boundary) and a material entity, in which the boundary delimits the material entity
A 2D boundary may have holes and gaps, but it must be a single connected entity, not an aggregate of several disconnected parts.
Although the boundary is two-dimensional, it exists in three-dimensional space and thus has a 3D shape.
2D_boundary_of
boundary of
is 2D boundary of
is boundary of
RO:0002000
uberon
boundary_of
boundary_of
2D boundary of
boundary of
my body has 2D boundary the surface of my skin
a relation between a material entity and a 2D immaterial entity (the boundary), in which the boundary delimits the material entity
A 2D boundary may have holes and gaps, but it must be a single connected entity, not an aggregate of several disconnected parts.
Although the boundary is two-dimensional, it exists in three-dimensional space and thus has a 3D shape.
David Osumi-Sutherland
has boundary
has_2D_boundary
RO:0002002
uberon
has_boundary
has_boundary
has 2D boundary
has boundary
David Osumi-Sutherland
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22402613
RO:0002005
nerve supply
uberon
innervated_by
innervated_by
http://code.google.com/p/obo-relations/issues/detail?id=6
innervated_by
innervated_by
nerve supply
FMA:85999
X outer_layer_of Y iff:
. X :continuant that bearer_of some PATO:laminar
. X part_of Y
. exists Z :surface
. X has_boundary Z
. Z boundary_of Y
has_boundary: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002002
boundary_of: http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002000
David Osumi-Sutherland
RO:0002007
uberon
bounding_layer_of
bounding_layer_of
A relationship that applies between a continuant and its outer, bounding layer. Examples include the relationship between a multicellular organism and its integument, between an animal cell and its plasma membrane, and between a membrane bound organelle and its outer/bounding membrane.
A relationship that applies between a continuant and its outer, bounding layer. Examples include the relationship between a multicellular organism and its integument, between an animal cell and its plasma membrane, and between a membrane bound organelle and its outer/bounding membrane.
bounding layer of
bounding layer of
A 'has regulatory component activity' B if A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A has_component B and A is regulated by B.
dos
2017-05-24T09:30:46Z
has regulatory component activity
A relationship that holds between a GO molecular function and a component of that molecular function that negatively regulates the activity of the whole. More formally, A 'has regulatory component activity' B iff :A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A has_component B and A is negatively regulated by B.
dos
2017-05-24T09:31:01Z
By convention GO molecular functions are classified by their effector function. Internal regulatory functions are treated as components. For example, NMDA glutmate receptor activity is a cation channel activity with positive regulatory component 'glutamate binding' and negative regulatory components including 'zinc binding' and 'magnesium binding'.
has negative regulatory component activity
A relationship that holds between a GO molecular function and a component of that molecular function that positively regulates the activity of the whole. More formally, A 'has regulatory component activity' B iff :A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A has_component B and A is positively regulated by B.
dos
2017-05-24T09:31:17Z
By convention GO molecular functions are classified by their effector function and internal regulatory functions are treated as components. So, for example calmodulin has a protein binding activity that has positive regulatory component activity calcium binding activity. Receptor tyrosine kinase activity is a tyrosine kinase activity that has positive regulatory component 'ligand binding'.
has positive regulatory component activity
dos
2017-05-24T09:44:33Z
A 'has component activity' B if A is A and B are molecular functions (GO_0003674) and A has_component B.
has component activity
w 'has process component' p if p and w are processes, w 'has part' p and w is such that it can be directly disassembled into into n parts p, p2, p3, ..., pn, where these parts are of similar type.
dos
2017-05-24T09:49:21Z
has component process
A relationship that holds between between a receptor and an chemical entity, typically a small molecule or peptide, that carries information between cells or compartments of a cell and which binds the receptor and regulates its effector function.
dos
2017-07-19T17:30:36Z
has ligand
dos
2017-09-17T13:52:24Z
Process(P2) is directly regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P1 directly regulates P2.
directly regulated by
Process(P2) is directly regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P1 directly regulates P2.
GOC:dos
Process(P2) is directly negatively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 negatively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding negatively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 directly negatively regulated by P1.
dos
2017-09-17T13:52:38Z
directly negatively regulated by
Process(P2) is directly negatively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 negatively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding negatively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 directly negatively regulated by P1.
GOC:dos
Process(P2) is directly postively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 positively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding positively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 is directly postively regulated by P1.
dos
2017-09-17T13:52:47Z
directly positively regulated by
Process(P2) is directly postively regulated by process(P1) iff: P1 positively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding positively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P2 is directly postively regulated by P1.
GOC:dos
A 'has effector activity' B if A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A 'has component activity' B and B is the effector (output function) of B. Each compound function has only one effector activity.
dos
2017-09-22T14:14:36Z
This relation is designed for constructing compound molecular functions, typically in combination with one or more regulatory component activity relations.
has effector activity
A 'has effector activity' B if A and B are GO molecular functions (GO_0003674), A 'has component activity' B and B is the effector (output function) of B. Each compound function has only one effector activity.
GOC:dos
David Osumi-Sutherland
X ends_after Y iff: end(Y) before_or_simultaneous_with end(X)
ends after
X immediately_preceded_by Y iff: end(X) simultaneous_with start(Y)
David Osumi-Sutherland
starts_at_end_of
A non-transitive temporal relation in which one process immediately precedes another process, such that there is no interval of time between the two processes[SIO:000251].
RO:0002087
directly preceded by
is directly preceded by
is immediately preceded by
starts_at_end_of
uberon
immediately_preceded_by
immediately_preceded_by
X immediately_preceded_by Y iff: end(X) simultaneous_with start(Y)
immediately preceded by
immediately_preceded_by
A non-transitive temporal relation in which one process immediately precedes another process, such that there is no interval of time between the two processes[SIO:000251].
SIO:000251
is immediately preceded by
SIO:000251
David Osumi-Sutherland
ends_at_start_of
meets
X immediately_precedes_Y iff: end(X) simultaneous_with start(Y)
immediately precedes
A overlaps B if they share some part in common.
x overlaps y if and only if there exists some z such that x has part z and z part of y
BFO_0000051 some (BFO_0000050 some ?Y)
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000051 some (http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000050 some ?Y)
RO:0002131
uberon
overlaps
overlaps
overlaps
overlaps
true
Relation between a 'neuron projection bundle' and a region in which one or more of its component neuron projections either synapses to targets or receives synaptic input.
T innervates some R
Expands_to: T has_fasciculating_neuron_projection that synapse_in some R.
David Osumi-Sutherland
<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002132> some (<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/GO_0043005> that (<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/RO_0002131> some (<http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/GO_0045202> that <http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/BFO_0000050> some Y?)))
RO:0002134
uberon
innervates
innervates
http://code.google.com/p/obo-relations/issues/detail?id=6
innervates
innervates
X continuous_with Y if and only if X and Y share a fiat boundary.
David Osumi-Sutherland
connected to
The label for this relation was previously connected to. I relabeled this to "continuous with". The standard notion of connectedness does not imply shared boundaries - e.g. Glasgow connected_to Edinburgh via M8; my patella connected_to my femur (via patellar-femoral joint)
RO:0002150
uberon
continuous_with
continuous_with
continuous with
continuous_with
FMA:85972
A is spatially_disjoint_from B if and only if they have no parts in common
There are two ways to encode this as a shortcut relation. The other possibility to use an annotation assertion between two classes, and expand this to a disjointness axiom.
Chris Mungall
Note that it would be possible to use the relation to label the relationship between a near infinite number of structures - between the rings of saturn and my left earlobe. The intent is that this is used for parsiomoniously for disambiguation purposes - for example, between siblings in a jointly exhaustive pairwise disjointness hierarchy
BFO_0000051 exactly 0 (BFO_0000050 some ?Y)
spatially disjoint from
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Part-disjointness-Design-Pattern
a 'toe distal phalanx bone' that is connected to a 'toe medial phalanx bone' (an interphalangeal joint *connects* these two bones).
Binary relationship: x connected_to y if and only if there exists some z such that z connects x and y in a ternary connected_to(x,y,z) relationship.
a is connected to b if and only if a and b are discrete structure, and there exists some connecting structure c, such that c connects a and b
RO:0002170
uberon
connected_to
connected_to
Connection does not imply overlaps.
connected to
connected to
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Connectivity-Design-Pattern
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Modeling-articulations-Design-Pattern
Binary relationship: x connected_to y if and only if there exists some z such that z connects x and y in a ternary connected_to(x,y,z) relationship.
The M8 connects Glasgow and Edinburgh
a 'toe distal phalanx bone' that is connected to a 'toe medial phalanx bone' (an interphalangeal joint *connects* these two bones).
Binary relationship: z connects x if and only if there exists some y such that z connects x and y in a ternary connected_to(x,y,z) relationship.
c connects a if and only if there exist some b such that a and b are similar parts of the same system, and c connects b, specifically, c connects a with b. When one structure connects two others it unites some aspect of the function or role they play within the system.
this is currently used for both structural relationships (such as between a valve and the chamber it connects) and abstract relationships (anatomical lines and the entities they connect)
RO:0002176
uberon
connects
connects
connects
connects
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Connectivity-Design-Pattern
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/wiki/Modeling-articulations-Design-Pattern
Binary relationship: z connects x if and only if there exists some y such that z connects x and y in a ternary connected_to(x,y,z) relationship.
a is attached to part of b if a is attached to b, or a is attached to some p, where p is part of b.
attached to part of (anatomical structure to anatomical structure)
RO:0002177
uberon
attaches_to_part_of
attaches_to_part_of
attached to part of
attaches_to_part_of
true
true
Relation between an arterial structure and another structure, where the arterial structure acts as a conduit channeling fluid, substance or energy.
relation between an artery and the structure is supplies with blood.
Individual ontologies should provide their own constraints on this abstract relation. For example, in the realm of anatomy this should hold between an artery and an anatomical structure
RO:0002178
arterial supply of
uberon
supplies
supplies
source: FMA
supplies
supplies
arterial supply of
FMA:86003
Relation between an collecting structure and another structure, where the collecting structure acts as a conduit channeling fluid, substance or energy away from the other structure.
Individual ontologies should provide their own constraints on this abstract relation. For example, in the realm of anatomy this should hold between a vein and an anatomical structure
RO:0002179
drains blood from
drains from
uberon
drains
drains
source: Wikipedia
drains
drains
w 'has component' p if w 'has part' p and w is such that it can be directly disassembled into into n parts p, p2, p3, ..., pn, where these parts are of similar type.
The definition of 'has component' is still under discussion. The challenge is in providing a definition that does not imply transitivity.
For use in recording has_part with a cardinality constraint, because OWL does not permit cardinality constraints to be used in combination with transitive object properties. In situations where you would want to say something like 'has part exactly 5 digit, you would instead use has_component exactly 5 digit.
RO:0002180
protein
uberon
has_component
false
has_component
has component
has component
has_component
x develops from y if and only if either (a) x directly develops from y or (b) there exists some z such that x directly develops from z and z develops from y
Chris Mungall
David Osumi-Sutherland
Melissa Haendel
Terry Meehan
RO:0002202
uberon
develops_from
develops_from
This is the transitive form of the develops from relation
develops from
develops_from
inverse of develops from
Chris Mungall
David Osumi-Sutherland
Terry Meehan
RO:0002203
uberon
develops_into
develops_into
develops into
develops_into
Candidate definition: x directly_develops from y if and only if there exists some developmental process (GO:0032502) p such that x and y both participate in p, and x is the output of p and y is the input of p, and a substantial portion of the matter of x comes from y, and the start of x is coincident with or after the end of y.
Chris Mungall
David Osumi-Sutherland
has developmental precursor
FBbt
RO:0002207
uberon
directly_develops_from
directly_develops_from
TODO - add child relations from DOS
directly develops from
directly_develops_from
inverse of directly develops from
developmental precursor of
directly develops into
process(P1) regulates process(P2) iff: P1 results in the initiation or termination of P2 OR affects the frequency of its initiation or termination OR affects the magnitude or rate of output of P2.
We use 'regulates' here to specifically imply control. However, many colloquial usages of the term correctly correspond to the weaker relation of 'causally upstream of or within' (aka influences). Consider relabeling to make things more explicit
Chris Mungall
David Hill
Tanya Berardini
GO
Regulation precludes parthood; the regulatory process may not be within the regulated process.
regulates (processual)
false
RO:0002211
external
regulates
regulates
regulates
regulates
Process(P1) negatively regulates process(P2) iff: P1 terminates P2, or P1 descreases the the frequency of initiation of P2 or the magnitude or rate of output of P2.
Chris Mungall
negatively regulates (process to process)
RO:0002212
external
negatively_regulates
negatively_regulates
negatively regulates
negatively regulates
Process(P1) postively regulates process(P2) iff: P1 initiates P2, or P1 increases the the frequency of initiation of P2 or the magnitude or rate of output of P2.
Chris Mungall
positively regulates (process to process)
RO:0002213
external
positively_regulates
positively_regulates
positively regulates
positively regulates
mechanosensory neuron capable of detection of mechanical stimulus involved in sensory perception (GO:0050974)
osteoclast SubClassOf 'capable of' some 'bone resorption'
A relation between a material entity (such as a cell) and a process, in which the material entity has the ability to carry out the process.
Chris Mungall
has function realized in
For compatibility with BFO, this relation has a shortcut definition in which the expression "capable of some P" expands to "bearer_of (some realized_by only P)".
RO_0000053 some (RO_0000054 only ?Y)
RO:0002215
protein
uberon
capable_of
false
capable_of
capable of
capable of
capable_of
c stands in this relationship to p if and only if there exists some p' such that c is capable_of p', and p' is part_of p.
Chris Mungall
has function in
RO_0000053 some (RO_0000054 only (BFO_0000050 some ?Y))
RO:0002216
uberon
capable_of_part_of
capable_of_part_of
capable of part of
capable of part of
true
x actively participates in y if and only if x participates in y and x realizes some active role
Chris Mungall
agent in
actively participates in
'heart development' has active participant some Shh protein
x has participant y if and only if x realizes some active role that inheres in y
This may be obsoleted and replaced by the original 'has agent' relation
Chris Mungall
has agent
obsolete has active participant
true
surrounded by
x surrounded_by y if and only if (1) x is adjacent to y and for every region r that is adjacent to x, r overlaps y (2) the shared boundary between x and y occupies the majority of the outermost boundary of x
x surrounded_by y if and only if x is adjacent to y and for every region r that is adjacent to x, r overlaps y
x surrounded_by y iff: x is adjacent to y and for every region r adjacent to x, r overlaps y
Chris Mungall
RO:0002219
uberon
surrounded_by
surrounded_by
surrounded by
surrounded_by
x surrounded_by y iff: x is adjacent to y and for every region r adjacent to x, r overlaps y
A caterpillar walking on the surface of a leaf is adjacent_to the leaf, if one of the caterpillar appendages is touching the leaf. In contrast, a butterfly flying close to a flower is not considered adjacent, unless there are any touching parts.
The epidermis layer of a vertebrate is adjacent to the dermis.
The plasma membrane of a cell is adjacent to the cytoplasm, and also to the cell lumen which the cytoplasm occupies.
The skin of the forelimb is adjacent to the skin of the torso if these are considered anatomical subdivisions with a defined border. Otherwise a relation such as continuous_with would be used.
x adjacent to y if and only if x and y share a boundary.
x adjacent_to y iff: x and y share a boundary
This relation acts as a join point with BSPO
Chris Mungall
RO:0002220
uberon
adjacent_to
adjacent_to
adjacent to
adjacent to
adjacent_to
A caterpillar walking on the surface of a leaf is adjacent_to the leaf, if one of the caterpillar appendages is touching the leaf. In contrast, a butterfly flying close to a flower is not considered adjacent, unless there are any touching parts.
inverse of surrounded by
inverse of surrounded_by
Chris Mungall
RO:0002221
uberon
surrounds
surrounds
surrounds
surrounds
inverse of surrounded_by
move to BFO?
Chris Mungall
Allen
Do not use this relation directly. It is ended as a grouping for relations between occurrents involving the relative timing of their starts and ends.
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1kBv1ep_9g3sTR-SD3jqzFqhuwo9TPNF-l-9fUDbO6rM/edit?pli=1
A relation that holds between two occurrents. This is a grouping relation that collects together all the Allen relations.
temporal relation
temporally related to
Relation between occurrents, shares a start boundary with.
inverse of starts with
Chris Mungall
Allen
RO:0002223
uberon
starts
starts
starts
starts
Relation between occurrents, shares a start boundary with.
Allen:starts
Every insulin receptor signaling pathway starts with the binding of a ligand to the insulin receptor
x starts with y if and only if x has part y and the time point at which x starts is equivalent to the time point at which y starts. Formally: α(y) = α(x) ∧ ω(y) < ω(x), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point.
Chris Mungall
started by
RO:0002224
uberon
starts_with
starts_with
starts with
starts with
x develops from part of y if and only if there exists some z such that x develops from z and z is part of y
Chris Mungall
RO:0002225
uberon
develops_from_part_of
develops_from_part_of
develops from part of
develops_from_part_of
x develops_in y if x is located in y whilst x is developing
Chris Mungall
EHDAA2
Jonathan Bard, EHDAA2
RO:0002226
uberon
develops_in
develops_in
This relation take from EHDAA2 - precise semantics yet to be defined
develops in
develops_in
Relation between occurrents, shares an end boundary with.
inverse of ends with
Chris Mungall
RO:0002229
finishes
uberon
ends
ends
ends
ends
Relation between occurrents, shares an end boundary with.
Allen:starts
ZFS:finishes
x ends with y if and only if x has part y and the time point at which x ends is equivalent to the time point at which y ends. Formally: α(y) > α(x) ∧ ω(y) = ω(x), where α is a function that maps a process to a start point, and ω is a function that maps a process to an end point.
Chris Mungall
finished by
RO:0002230
uberon
ends_with
ends_with
ends with
ends with
x 'has starts location' y if and only if there exists some process z such that x 'starts with' z and z 'occurs in' y
Chris Mungall
starts with process that occurs in
has start location
x 'has end location' y if and only if there exists some process z such that x 'ends with' z and z 'occurs in' y
Chris Mungall
ends with process that occurs in
has end location
p has input c iff: p is a process, c is a material entity, c is a participant in p, c is present at the start of p, and the state of c is modified during p.
Chris Mungall
consumes
has input
p has output c iff c is a participant in p, c is present at the end of p, and c is not present at the beginning of p.
Chris Mungall
produces
has output
Mammalian thymus has developmental contribution from some pharyngeal pouch 3; Mammalian thymus has developmental contribution from some pharyngeal pouch 4 [Kardong]
x has developmental contribution from y iff x has some part z such that z develops from y
Chris Mungall
RO:0002254
uberon
has_developmental_contribution_from
has_developmental_contribution_from
has developmental contribution from
has developmental contribution from
inverse of has developmental contribution from
Chris Mungall
RO:0002255
uberon
developmentally_contributes_to
developmentally_contributes_to
developmentally contributes to
developmentally_contributes_to
t1 developmentally_induced_by t2 if there is a process of organ induction (GO:0001759) with t1 and t2 as interacting participants. t2 causes t1 to change its fate from a precursor tissue type T to T', where T' develops_from T.
t1 induced_by t2 if there is a process of developmental induction (GO:0031128) with t1 and t2 as interacting participants. t2 causes t1 to change its fate from a precursor anatomical structure type T to T', where T' develops_from T
Chris Mungall
David Osumi-Sutherland
Melissa Haendel
induced by
Developmental Biology, Gilbert, 8th edition, figure 6.5(F)
GO:0001759
We place this under 'developmentally preceded by'. This placement should be examined in the context of reciprocal inductions[cjm]
RO:0002256
uberon
developmentally_induced_by
developmentally_induced_by
sources for developmentally_induced_by relationships in Uberon: Developmental Biology, Gilbert, 8th edition, figure 6.5(F)
developmentally induced by
developmentally_induced_by
t1 developmentally_induced_by t2 if there is a process of organ induction (GO:0001759) with t1 and t2 as interacting participants. t2 causes t1 to change its fate from a precursor tissue type T to T', where T' develops_from T.
GO:0001759
Inverse of developmentally induced by
Chris Mungall
developmentally induces
Candidate definition: x developmentally related to y if and only if there exists some developmental process (GO:0032502) p such that x and y both participates in p, and x is the output of p and y is the input of p
false
Chris Mungall
In general you should not use this relation to make assertions - use one of the more specific relations below this one
RO:0002258
uberon
developmentally_preceded_by
developmentally_preceded_by
This relation groups together various other developmental relations. It is fairly generic, encompassing induction, developmental contribution and direct and transitive develops from
developmentally preceded by
developmentally preceded by
A faulty traffic light (material entity) whose malfunctioning (a process) is causally upstream of a traffic collision (a process): the traffic light acts upstream of the collision.
c acts upstream of p if and only if c enables some f that is involved in p' and p' occurs chronologically before p, is not part of p, and affects the execution of p. c is a material entity and f, p, p' are processes.
acts upstream of
A gene product that has some activity, where that activity may be a part of a pathway or upstream of the pathway.
c acts upstream of or within p if c is enables f, and f is causally upstream of or within p. c is a material entity and p is an process.
affects
acts upstream of or within
x developmentally replaces y if and only if there is some developmental process that causes x to move or to cease to exist, and for the site that was occupied by x to become occupied by y, where y either comes into existence in this site or moves to this site from somewhere else
This relation is intended for cases such as when we have a bone element replacing its cartilage element precursor. Currently most AOs represent this using 'develops from'. We need to decide whether 'develops from' will be generic and encompass replacement, or whether we need a new name for a generic relation that encompasses replacement and development-via-cell-lineage
Chris Mungall
replaces
RO:0002285
uberon
developmentally_replaces
developmentally_replaces
developmentally replaces
developmentally_replaces
Inverse of developmentally preceded by
Chris Mungall
developmentally succeeded by
'hypopharyngeal eminence' SubClassOf 'part of precursor of' some tongue
Chris Mungall
part of developmental precursor of
p results in the developmental progression of s iff p is a developmental process and s is an anatomical structure and p causes s to undergo a change in state at some point along its natural developmental cycle (this cycle starts with its formation, through the mature structure, and ends with its loss).
This property and its subproperties are being used primarily for the definition of GO developmental processes. The property hierarchy mirrors the core GO hierarchy. In future we may be able to make do with a more minimal set of properties, but due to the way GO is currently structured we require highly specific relations to avoid incorrect entailments. To avoid this, the corresponding genus terms in GO should be declared mutually disjoint.
Chris Mungall
results_in_developmental_progression_of
results in developmental progression of
an annotation of gene X to anatomical structure formation with results_in_formation_of UBERON:0000007 (pituitary gland) means that at the beginning of the process a pituitary gland does not exist and at the end of the process a pituitary gland exists.
every "endocardial cushion formation" (GO:0003272) results_in_formation_of some "endocardial cushion" (UBERON:0002062)
Chris Mungall
GOC:mtg_berkeley_2013
results_in_formation_of
results in formation of
cjm
holds between x and y if and only if x is causally upstream of y and the progression of x increases the frequency, rate or extent of y
causally upstream of, positive effect
cjm
holds between x and y if and only if x is causally upstream of y and the progression of x decreases the frequency, rate or extent of y
causally upstream of, negative effect
q inheres in part of w if and only if there exists some p such that q inheres in p and p part of w.
Because part_of is transitive, inheres in is a sub-relation of inheres in part of
Chris Mungall
inheres in part of
true
A mereological relationship or a topological relationship
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is ended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving parthood or connectivity relationships
mereotopologically related to
A relationship that holds between entities participating in some developmental process (GO:0032502)
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is ended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving organismal development
developmentally related to
a particular instances of akt-2 enables some instance of protein kinase activity
Chris Mungall
catalyzes
executes
has
is catalyzing
is executing
This relation differs from the parent relation 'capable of' in that the parent is weaker and only expresses a capability that may not be actually realized, whereas this relation is always realized.
This relation is currently used experimentally by the Gene Ontology Consortium. It may not be stable and may be obsoleted at some future time.
enables
A grouping relationship for any relationship directly involving a function, or that holds because of a function of one of the related entities.
Chris Mungall
This is a grouping relation that collects relations used for the purpose of connecting structure and function
RO:0002328
uberon
functionally_related_to
functionally_related_to
functionally related to
functionally related to
this relation holds between c and p when c is part of some c', and c' is capable of p.
Chris Mungall
false
RO:0002329
uberon
part_of_structure_that_is_capable_of
part_of_structure_that_is_capable_of
part of structure that is capable of
part of structure that is capable of
true
c involved_in p if and only if c enables some process p', and p' is part of p
Chris Mungall
actively involved in
enables part of
RO:0002331
protein
involved_in
false
involved_in
involved in
involved_in
inverse of enables
Chris Mungall
enabled by
inverse of regulates
Chris Mungall
regulated by (processual)
regulated by
inverse of negatively regulates
Chris Mungall
negatively regulated by
inverse of positively regulates
Chris Mungall
positively regulated by
An organism that is a member of a population of organisms
is member of is a mereological relation between a item and a collection.
is member of
member part of
SIO
RO:0002350
uberon
member_of
member_of
member of
member of
has member is a mereological relation between a collection and an item.
SIO
RO:0002351
uberon
has_member
has_member
has member
has member
inverse of has input
Chris Mungall
RO:0002352
uberon
input_of
input_of
input of
input of
inverse of has output
Chris Mungall
RO:0002353
protein
uberon
output_of
false
output_of
output of
output of
output_of
Chris Mungall
formed as result of
a is attached to b if and only if a and b are discrete objects or object parts, and there are physical connections between a and b such that a force pulling a will move b, or a force pulling b will move a
Chris Mungall
attached to (anatomical structure to anatomical structure)
RO:0002371
uberon
attaches_to
attaches_to
attached to
attaches_to
m has_muscle_insertion s iff m is attaches_to s, and it is the case that when m contracts, s moves. Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone.
m has_muscle_insertion s iff m is attaches_to s, and it is the case that when m contracts, s moves. Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone.
Chris Mungall
Wikipedia:Insertion_(anatomy)
RO:0002373
uberon
has_muscle_insertion
has_muscle_insertion
The insertion is the point of attachment of a muscle that moves the most when the muscle shortens, or the most distal end of limb muscles
has muscle insertion
has_muscle_insertion
We need to import uberon muscle into RO to use as a stricter domain constraint
m has_muscle_insertion s iff m is attaches_to s, and it is the case that when m contracts, s moves. Insertions are usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone.
A relationship that holds between two material entities in a system of connected structures, where the branching relationship holds based on properties of the connecting network.
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is ended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving branching relationships
This relation can be used for geographic features (e.g. rivers) as well as anatomical structures (plant branches and roots, leaf veins, animal veins, arteries, nerves)
in branching relationship with
https://github.com/obophenotype/uberon/issues/170
Deschutes River tributary_of Columbia River
inferior epigastric vein tributary_of external iliac vein
x tributary_of y if and only if x a channel for the flow of a substance into y, where y is larger than x. If x and y are hydrographic features, then y is the main stem of a river, or a lake or bay, but not the sea or ocean. If x and y are anatomical, then y is a vein.
Chris Mungall
drains into
drains to
tributary channel of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tributary
http://www.medindia.net/glossary/venous_tributary.htm
This relation can be used for geographic features (e.g. rivers) as well as anatomical structures (veins, arteries)
RO:0002376
uberon
drains into
tributary_of
tributary_of
tributary of
tributary_of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tributary
drains into
dbpowl:drainsTo
A lump of clay and a statue
x spatially_coextensive_with y if and inly if x and y have the same location
Chris Mungall
This relation is added for formal completeness. It is unlikely to be used in many practical scenarios
spatially coextensive with
x is a branching part of y if and only if x is part of y and x is connected directly or indirectly to the main stem of y
we need to check if FMA branch_of implies part_of. the relation we intend to use here should - for example, see vestibulocochlear nerve
Chris Mungall
RO:0002380
uberon
branching_part_of
branching_part_of
branching part of
branching_part_of
FMA:85994
x has developmental potential involving y iff x is capable of a developmental process with output y. y may be the successor of x, or may be a different structure in the vicinity (as for example in the case of developmental induction).
Chris Mungall
has developmental potential involving
x has potential to developmentrally contribute to y iff x developmentally contributes to y or x is capable of developmentally contributing to y
x has potential to developmentrally contribute to y iff x developmentally contributes to y or x is capable of developmentally contributing to y
Chris Mungall
RO:0002385
uberon
has_potential_to_developmentally_contribute_to
has_potential_to_developmentally_contribute_to
has potential to developmentally contribute to
has potential to developmentally contribute to
x has potential to developmentally induce y iff x developmentally induces y or x is capable of developmentally inducing y
Chris Mungall
has potential to developmentally induce
x has the potential to develop into y iff x develops into y or if x is capable of developing into y
x has the potential to develop into y iff x develops into y or if x is capable of developing into y
Chris Mungall
RO:0002387
uberon
has_potential_to_develop_into
has_potential_to_develop_into
has potential to develop into
has potential to develop into
x has potential to directly develop into y iff x directly develops into y or x is capable of directly developing into y
x has potential to directly develop into y iff x directly develops into y or x is capable of directly developing into y
Chris Mungall
RO:0002388
uberon
has_potential_to_directly_develop_into
has_potential_to_directly_develop_into
has potential to directly develop into
has potential to directly develop into
inverse of upstream of
Chris Mungall
causally downstream of
Chris Mungall
immediately causally downstream of
This relation groups causal relations between material entities and causal relations between processes
This branch of the ontology deals with causal relations between entities. It is divided into two branches: causal relations between occurrents/processes, and causal relations between material entities. We take an 'activity flow-centric approach', with the former as primary, and define causal relations between material entities in terms of causal relations between occurrents.
To define causal relations in an activity-flow type network, we make use of 3 primitives:
* Temporal: how do the intervals of the two occurrents relate?
* Is the causal relation regulatory?
* Is the influence positive or negative
The first of these can be formalized in terms of the Allen Interval Algebra. Informally, the 3 bins we care about are 'direct', 'indirect' or overlapping. Note that all causal relations should be classified under a RO temporal relation (see the branch under 'temporally related to'). Note that all causal relations are temporal, but not all temporal relations are causal. Two occurrents can be related in time without being causally connected. We take causal influence to be primitive, elucidated as being such that has the upstream changed, some qualities of the donwstream would necessarily be modified.
For the second, we consider a relationship to be regulatory if the system in which the activities occur is capable of altering the relationship to achieve some objective. This could include changing the rate of production of a molecule.
For the third, we consider the effect of the upstream process on the output(s) of the downstream process. If the level of output is increased, or the rate of production of the output is increased, then the direction is increased. Direction can be positive, negative or neutral or capable of either direction. Two positives in succession yield a positive, two negatives in succession yield a positive, otherwise the default assumption is that the net effect is canceled and the influence is neutral.
Each of these 3 primitives can be composed to yield a cross-product of different relation types.
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is intended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving cause and effect.
causally related to
p is causally upstream of q if and only if p precedes q and p and q are linked in a causal chain
Chris Mungall
causally upstream of
p is immediately causally upstream of q iff both (a) p immediately precedes q and (b) p is causally upstream of q. In addition, the output of p must be an input of q.
Chris Mungall
immediately causally upstream of
p 'causally upstream or within' q iff (1) the end of p is before the end of q and (2) the execution of p exerts some causal influence over the outputs of q; i.e. if p was abolished or the outputs of p were to be modified, this would necessarily affect q.
We would like to make this disjoint with 'preceded by', but this is prohibited in OWL2
Chris Mungall
influences (processual)
affects
causally upstream of or within
inverse of causally upstream of or within
Chris Mungall
causally downstream of or within
c involved in regulation of p if c is involved in some p' and p' regulates some p
Chris Mungall
involved in regulation of
c involved in regulation of p if c is involved in some p' and p' positively regulates some p
Chris Mungall
involved in positive regulation of
c involved in regulation of p if c is involved in some p' and p' negatively regulates some p
Chris Mungall
involved in negative regulation of
c involved in or regulates p if and only if either (i) c is involved in p or (ii) c is involved in regulation of p
OWL does not allow defining object properties via a Union
Chris Mungall
involved in or reguates
involved in or involved in regulation of
A protein that enables activity in a cytosol.
c executes activity in d if and only if c enables p and p occurs_in d. Assuming no action at a distance by gene products, if a gene product enables (is capable of) a process that occurs in some structure, it must have at least some part in that structure.
Chris Mungall
executes activity in
enables activity in
is active in
true
c executes activity in d if and only if c enables p and p occurs_in d. Assuming no action at a distance by gene products, if a gene product enables (is capable of) a process that occurs in some structure, it must have at least some part in that structure.
GOC:cjm
GOC:dos
p contributes to morphology of w if and only if a change in the morphology of p entails a change in the morphology of w. Examples: every skull contributes to morphology of the head which it is a part of. Counter-example: nuclei do not generally contribute to the morphology of the cell they are part of, as they are buffered by cytoplasm.
Chris Mungall
RO:0002433
uberon
contributes_to_morphology_of
contributes_to_morphology_of
contributes to morphology of
A relationship that holds between two entities in which the processes executed by the two entities are causally connected.
Considering relabeling as 'pairwise interacts with'
This relation and all sub-relations can be applied to either (1) pairs of entities that are interacting at any moment of time (2) populations or species of entity whose members have the disposition to interact (3) classes whose members have the disposition to interact.
Chris Mungall
Note that this relationship type, and sub-relationship types may be redundant with process terms from other ontologies. For example, the symbiotic relationship hierarchy parallels GO. The relations are provided as a convenient shortcut. Consider using the more expressive processual form to capture your data. In the future, these relations will be linked to their cognate processes through rules.
in pairwise interaction with
interacts with
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/MI_0914
https://github.com/oborel/obo-relations/wiki/InteractionRelations
An interaction relationship in which the two partners are molecular entities that directly physically interact with each other for example via a stable binding interaction or a brief interaction during which one modifies the other.
Chris Mungall
binds
molecularly binds with
molecularly interacts with
http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/MI_0915
Axiomatization to GO to be added later
Chris Mungall
An interaction relation between x and y in which x catalyzes a reaction in which a phosphate group is added to y.
phosphorylates
Holds between molecular entities A and B where A can physically interact with B and in doing so regulates a process that B is capable of. For example, A and B may be gene products and binding of B by A regulates the kinase activity of B.
Chris Mungall
molecularly controls
activity directly regulates activity of
Holds between molecular entities A and B where A can physically interact with B and in doing so negatively regulates a process that B is capable of. For example, A and B may be gene products and binding of B by A negatively regulates the kinase activity of B.
Chris Mungall
inhibits
molecularly decreases activity of
activity directly negatively regulates activity of
Holds between molecular entities A and B where A can physically interact with B and in doing so positively regulates a process that B is capable of. For example, A and B may be gene products and binding of B by A positively regulates the kinase activity of B.
Chris Mungall
activates
molecularly increases activity of
activity directly positively regulates activity of
Chris Mungall
This property or its subproperties is not to be used directly. These properties exist as helper properties that are used to support OWL reasoning.
helper property (not for use in curation)
Chris Mungall
is symbiosis
'otolith organ' SubClassOf 'composed primarily of' some 'calcium carbonate'
x composed_primarily_of y if and only if more than half of the mass of x is made from y or units of the same type as y.
x composed_primarily_of y iff: more than half of the mass of x is made from parts of y
Chris Mungall
RO:0002473
uberon
composed_primarily_of
composed_primarily_of
composed primarily of
p has part that occurs in c if and only if there exists some p1, such that p has_part p1, and p1 occurs in c.
Chris Mungall
has part that occurs in
true
Chris Mungall
is kinase activity
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is ended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, typically connecting an anatomical entity to a biological process or developmental stage.
relation between structure and stage
Relation between continuant c and occurrent s, such that every instance of c comes into existing during some s.
x existence starts during y if and only if the time point at which x starts is after or equivalent to the time point at which y starts and before or equivalent to the time point at which y ends. Formally: x existence starts during y iff α(x) >= α(y) & α(x) <= ω(y).
Chris Mungall
RO:0002488
begins_to_exist_during
uberon
existence_starts_during
existence_starts_during
existence starts during
existence starts during
Relation between continuant c and occurrent s, such that every instance of c comes into existing during some s.
Relation between continuant and occurrent, such that c comes into existence at the start of p.
x starts ends with y if and only if the time point at which x starts is equivalent to the time point at which y starts. Formally: x existence starts with y iff α(x) = α(y).
Chris Mungall
RO:0002489
uberon
existence_starts_with
existence_starts_with
existence starts with
Relation between continuant and occurrent, such that c comes into existence at the start of p.
x existence overlaps y if and only if either (a) the start of x is part of y or (b) the end of x is part of y. Formally: x existence starts and ends during y iff (α(x) >= α(y) & α(x) <= ω(y)) OR (ω(x) <= ω(y) & ω(x) >= α(y))
Chris Mungall
The relations here were created based on work originally by Fabian Neuhaus and David Osumi-Sutherland. The work has not yet been vetted and errors in definitions may have occurred during transcription.
existence overlaps
Relation between continuant c and occurrent s, such that every instance of c ceases to exist during some s, if it does not die prematurely.
x existence ends during y if and only if the time point at which x ends is before or equivalent to the time point at which y ends and after or equivalent to the point at which y starts. Formally: x existence ends during y iff ω(x) <= ω(y) and ω(x) >= α(y).
Chris Mungall
RO:0002492
ceases_to_exist_during
uberon
existence_ends_during
existence_ends_during
The relations here were created based on work originally by Fabian Neuhaus and David Osumi-Sutherland. The work has not yet been vetted and errors in definitions may have occurred during transcription.
existence ends during
Relation between continuant c and occurrent s, such that every instance of c ceases to exist during some s, if it does not die prematurely.
Relation between continuant and occurrent, such that c ceases to exist at the end of p.
x existence ends with y if and only if the time point at which x ends is equivalent to the time point at which y ends. Formally: x existence ends with y iff ω(x) = ω(y).
Chris Mungall
RO:0002493
uberon
existence_ends_with
existence_ends_with
The relations here were created based on work originally by Fabian Neuhaus and David Osumi-Sutherland. The work has not yet been vetted and errors in definitions may have occurred during transcription.
existence ends with
Relation between continuant and occurrent, such that c ceases to exist at the end of p.
x transformation of y if x is the immediate transformation of y, or is linked to y through a chain of transformation relationships
Chris Mungall
RO:0002494
transforms from
uberon
transformation_of
transformation_of
transformation of
transforms from
SIO:000657
x immediate transformation of y iff x immediately succeeds y temporally at a time boundary t, and all of the matter present in x at t is present in y at t, and all the matter in y at t is present in x at t
Chris Mungall
RO:0002495
direct_transformation_of
immediately transforms from
uberon
immediate_transformation_of
immediate_transformation_of
immediate transformation of
direct_transformation_of
immediately transforms from
SIO:000658
x existence starts during or after y if and only if the time point at which x starts is after or equivalent to the time point at which y starts. Formally: x existence starts during or after y iff α (x) >= α (y).
Chris Mungall
RO:0002496
uberon
existence_starts_during_or_after
existence_starts_during_or_after
The relations here were created based on work originally by Fabian Neuhaus and David Osumi-Sutherland. The work has not yet been vetted and errors in definitions may have occurred during transcription.
existence starts during or after
x existence ends during or before y if and only if the time point at which x ends is before or equivalent to the time point at which y ends.
Chris Mungall
RO:0002497
uberon
existence_ends_during_or_before
existence_ends_during_or_before
The relations here were created based on work originally by Fabian Neuhaus and David Osumi-Sutherland. The work has not yet been vetted and errors in definitions may have occurred during transcription.
existence ends during or before
A relationship between a material entity and a process where the material entity has some causal role that influences the process
causal agent in process
p is causally related to q if and only if p or any part of p and q or any part of q are linked by a chain of events where each event pair is one of direct activation or direct inhibition. p may be upstream, downstream, part of or a container of q.
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is intended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving cause and effect.
causal relation between processes
Chris Mungall
depends on
The intent is that the process branch of the causal property hierarchy is primary (causal relations hold between occurrents/processes), and that the material branch is defined in terms of the process branch
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is intended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving cause and effect.
causal relation between material entities
Forelimb SubClassOf has_skeleton some 'Forelimb skeleton'
A relation between a segment or subdivision of an organism and the maximal subdivision of material entities that provides structural support for that segment or subdivision.
A relation between a subdivision of an organism and the single subdivision of skeleton that provides structural support for that subdivision.
Chris Mungall
has supporting framework
The skeleton of a structure may be a true skeleton (for example, the bony skeleton of a hand) or any kind of support framework (the hydrostatic skeleton of a sea star, the exoskeleton of an insect, the cytoskeleton of a cell).
RO:0002551
uberon
has sekeletal support
has supporting framework
has_skeleton
has_skeleton
has skeleton
This should be to a more restricted class, but not the Uberon class may be too restricted since it is a composition-based definition of skeleton rather than functional.
A relation between a subdivision of an organism and the single subdivision of skeleton that provides structural support for that subdivision.
Chris Mungall
causally influenced by (material entity to material entity)
causally influenced by
Chris Mungall
interaction relation helper property
https://github.com/oborel/obo-relations/wiki/InteractionRelations
Chris Mungall
molecular interaction relation helper property
Holds between materal entities a and b if the activity of a is causally upstream of the activity of b, or causally upstream of a an activity that modifies b
Chris Mungall
causally influences (material entity to material entity)
causally influences
A relation that holds between elements of a musculoskeletal system or its analogs.
Chris Mungall
Do not use this relation directly. It is ended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving the biomechanical processes.
biomechanically related to
inverse of branching part of
Chris Mungall
RO:0002569
uberon
has_branching_part
has_branching_part
has branching part
x lumen_of y iff x is the space or substance that is part of y and does not cross any of the inner membranes or boundaries of y that is maximal with respect to the volume of the convex hull.
Chris Mungall
GOC:cjm
RO:0002571
uberon
lumen_of
lumen_of
lumen of
s is luminal space of x iff s is lumen_of x and s is an immaterial entity
Chris Mungall
RO:0002572
uberon
luminal_space_of
luminal_space_of
luminal space of
inverse of has skeleton
Chris Mungall
RO:0002576
uberon
skeleton_of
skeleton_of
skeleton of
Process(P1) directly regulates process(P2) iff: P1 regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P1 directly regulates P2.
Chris Mungall
directly regulates (processual)
directly regulates
gland SubClassOf 'has part structure that is capable of' some 'secretion by cell'
s 'has part structure that is capable of' p if and only if there exists some part x such that s 'has part' x and x 'capable of' p
Chris Mungall
has part structure that is capable of
A relationship that holds between a material entity and a process in which causality is involved, with either the material entity or some part of the material entity exerting some influence over the process, or the process influencing some aspect of the material entity.
Do not use this relation directly. It is intended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving cause and effect.
Chris Mungall
causal relation between material entity and a process
pyrethroid -> growth
Holds between c and p if and only if c is capable of some activity a, and a regulates p.
capable of regulating
Holds between c and p if and only if c is capable of some activity a, and a negatively regulates p.
capable of negatively regulating
renin -> arteriolar smooth muscle contraction
Holds between c and p if and only if c is capable of some activity a, and a positively regulates p.
capable of positively regulating
Inverse of 'causal agent in process'
process has causal agent
A relationship that holds between two entities, where the relationship holds based on the presence or absence of statistical dependence relationship. The entities may be statistical variables, or they may be other kinds of entities such as diseases, chemical entities or processes.
Do not use this relation directly. It is intended as a grouping for a diverse set of relations, all involving cause and effect.
obsolete related via dependence to
true
Process(P1) directly postively regulates process(P2) iff: P1 positively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding positively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P1 directly positively regulates P2.
directly positively regulates (process to process)
directly positively regulates
Process(P1) directly negatively regulates process(P2) iff: P1 negatively regulates P2 via direct physical interaction between an agent executing P1 (or some part of P1) and an agent executing P2 (or some part of P2). For example, if protein A has protein binding activity(P1) that targets protein B and this binding negatively regulates the kinase activity (P2) of protein B then P1 directly negatively regulates P2.
directly negatively regulates (process to process)
directly negatively regulates
a produces b if some process that occurs_in a has_output b, where a and b are material entities. Examples: hybridoma cell line produces monoclonal antibody reagent; chondroblast produces avascular GAG-rich matrix.
Melissa Haendel
RO:0003000
uberon
produces
produces
Note that this definition doesn't quite distinguish the output of a transformation process from a production process, which is related to the identity/granularity issue.
produces
produces
a produced_by b iff some process that occurs_in b has_output a.
Melissa Haendel
RO:0003001
uberon
produced_by
produced_by
produced by
produced_by
A relationship between a realizable entity R (e.g. function or disposition) and a material entity M where R is realized in response to a process that has an input stimulus of M.
cjm
2017-12-26T19:45:49Z
realized in response to stimulus
Holds between an entity and an process P where the entity enables some larger compound process, and that larger process has-part P.
cjm
2018-01-25T23:20:13Z
enables subfunction
cjm
2018-01-26T23:49:30Z
acts upstream of or within, positive effect
cjm
2018-01-26T23:49:51Z
acts upstream of or within, negative effect
c 'acts upstream of, positive effect' p if c is enables f, and f is causally upstream of p, and the direction of f is positive
cjm
2018-01-26T23:53:14Z
acts upstream of, positive effect
c 'acts upstream of, negative effect' p if c is enables f, and f is causally upstream of p, and the direction of f is negative
cjm
2018-01-26T23:53:22Z
acts upstream of, negative effect
cjm
2018-03-13T23:55:05Z
causally upstream of or within, negative effect
cjm
2018-03-13T23:55:19Z
causally upstream of or within, positive effect
A drought sensitivity trait that inheres in a whole plant is realized in a systemic response process in response to exposure to drought conditions.
An inflammatory disease that is realized in response to an inflammatory process occurring in the gut (which is itself the realization of a process realized in response to harmful stimuli in the mucosal lining of th gut)
Environmental polymorphism in butterflies: These butterflies have a 'responsivity to day length trait' that is realized in response to the duration of the day, and is realized in developmental processes that lead to increased or decreased pigmentation in the adult morph.
r 'realized in response to' s iff, r is a realizable (e.g. a plant trait such as responsivity to drought), s is an environmental stimulus (a process), and s directly causes the realization of r.
Austin Meier
Chris Mungall
David Osumi-Sutherland
Marie Angelique Laporte
triggered by process
realized in response to
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1KWhZxVBhIPkV6_daHta0h6UyHbjY2eIrnON1WIRGgdY/edit
triggered by process
RO:cjm
Genetic information generically depend on molecules of DNA.
The novel *War and Peace* generically depends on this copy of the novel.
The pattern shared by chess boards generically depends on any chess board.
The score of a symphony g-depends on a copy of the score.
This pdf file generically depends on this server.
A generically dependent continuant *b* generically depends on an independent continuant *c* at time *t* means: there inheres in *c* a specifically deendent continuant which concretizes *b* at *t*.
[072-ISO]
g-depends on
generically depends on
Molecules of DNA are carriers of genetic information.
This copy of *War and Peace* is carrier of the novel written by Tolstoy.
This hard drive is carrier of these data items.
*b* is carrier of *c* at time *t* if and only if *c* *g-depends on* *b* at *t*
[072-ISO]
is carrier of
vaccine immunization for host
vaccine immunization against microbe
Type of tissue or cell/the source of the material.
disease_ontology
derives_from
derives_from
Type of tissue or cell/the source of the material.
DO:lh
x anteriorly_connected_to y iff the anterior part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x posterior_to y.
uberon
anteriorly_connected_to
anteriorly connected to
x anteriorly_connected_to y iff the anterior part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x posterior_to y.
carries
uberon
channel_for
channel for
uberon
channels_from
channels_from
uberon
channels_into
channels_into
x is a conduit for y iff y passes through the lumen of x.
uberon
conduit_for
conduit for
x distally_connected_to y iff the distal part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x proximal_to y.
uberon
distally_connected_to
distally connected to
x distally_connected_to y iff the distal part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x proximal_to y.
uberon
existence_starts_and_ends_during
existence starts and ends during
uberon
extends_fibers_into
extends_fibers_into
Relationship between a fluid and a material entity, where the fluid is the output of a realization of a filtration role that inheres in the material entity.
uberon
filtered_through
Relationship between a fluid and a filtration barrier, where the portion of fluid arises as a transformation of another portion of fluid on the other side of the barrier, with larger particles removed
filtered through
a indirectly_supplies s iff a has a branch and the branch supplies or indirectly supplies s
add to RO
uberon
indirectly_supplies
indirectly_supplies
x posteriorly_connected_to y iff the posterior part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x anterior_to y.
uberon
posteriorly_connected_to
posteriorly connected to
x posteriorly_connected_to y iff the posterior part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x anterior_to y.
uberon
protects
protects
x proximally_connected_to y iff the proximal part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x distal_to y.
uberon
proximally_connected_to
proximally connected to
x proximally_connected_to y iff the proximal part of x is connected to y. i.e. x connected_to y and x distal_to y.
uberon
subdivision_of
placeholder relation. X = 'subdivision of A' and subdivision_of some B means that X is the mereological sum of A and B
subdivision of
.
uberon
transitively_anteriorly_connected_to
transitively anteriorly connected to
.
uberon
transitively_connected_to
transitively_connected to
.
uberon
transitively_distally_connected_to
transitively distally connected to
.
.
uberon
transitively_proximally_connected_to
transitively proximally connected to
.
has_disease_location
has_disease_location
entity
entity
实体
Entity
Entity
实体
entity
实体
Julius Caesar
Verdi’s Requiem
the Second World War
your body mass index
你的身体质量指数
凯撒大帝
威尔第年代安魂曲
第二次世界大战
BFO 2 Reference: In all areas of empirical inquiry we encounter general terms of two sorts. First are general terms which refer to universals or types:animaltuberculosissurgical procedurediseaseSecond, are general terms used to refer to groups of entities which instantiate a given universal but do not correspond to the extension of any subuniversal of that universal because there is nothing intrinsic to the entities in question by virtue of which they – and only they – are counted as belonging to the given group. Examples are: animal purchased by the Emperortuberculosis diagnosed on a Wednesdaysurgical procedure performed on a patient from Stockholmperson identified as candidate for clinical trial #2056-555person who is signatory of Form 656-PPVpainting by Leonardo da VinciSuch terms, which represent what are called ‘specializations’ in [81
BFO 2参考：在经验性总结分析的所有领域，我们遇到两种一般术语。首先是指共相或类型的一般术语：animaltuberculosissurgical proceduredisease其次，是用来指以下实例组的一般术语，这些实例组实例化一个给定共性但对应于该共相的任何子共相的扩展，因为没有实体的内在本质讨论因为他们-只有他们-被视为属于给定的群体。例子是：对斯德哥尔摩病人进行的周三手术过程中诊断出结核分枝杆菌而购买的动物，被确定为临床试验的候选人＃2056-555根据莱昂纳多·达·芬奇（Leonardo da Vinci）条款制定的656-PPV表格的签名人。这些术语代表所谓的“专业化'[81
Entity doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example Werner Ceusters 'portions of reality' include 4 sorts, entities (as BFO construes them), universals, configurations, and relations. It is an open question as to whether entities as construed in BFO will at some point also include these other portions of reality. See, for example, 'How to track absolutely everything' at http://www.referent-tracking.com/_RTU/papers/CeustersICbookRevised.pdf
实体不具有闭合公理，因为子类不一定丧失所有可能性。例如，Werner Ceusters的“现实的部分”包括4类，实体（当BFO构造它们时）、普遍性、配置和关系。这是一个开放性的问题，即在BFO中所解释的实体是否会在某个时候也包含这些其他的现实部分。参见，例如“如何完全追踪所有事物”在http://www.referent-tracking.com/_RTU/papers/CeustersICbookRevised.pdf
An entity is anything that exists or has existed or will exist. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [001-001])
一个实体是存在或已经存在或将存在的任何事物。 （BFO2公理标签参考：[001-001]）
entity
entity
实体
Entity doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example Werner Ceusters 'portions of reality' include 4 sorts, entities (as BFO construes them), universals, configurations, and relations. It is an open question as to whether entities as construed in BFO will at some point also include these other portions of reality. See, for example, 'How to track absolutely everything' at http://www.referent-tracking.com/_RTU/papers/CeustersICbookRevised.pdf
per discussion with Barry Smith
An entity is anything that exists or has existed or will exist. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [001-001])
continuant
continuant
常体
Continuant
Continuant
常体
continuant
常体
An entity that exists in full at any time in which it exists at all, persists through time while maintaining its identity and has no temporal parts.
An entity that exists in full at any time in which it exists at all, persists through time while maintaining its identity and has no temporal parts.
一个在任何时候都存在的实体，它持续存在，在维持其特性的同时且没有暂时的部分。
BFO 2 Reference: Continuant entities are entities which can be sliced to yield parts only along the spatial dimension, yielding for example the parts of your table which we call its legs, its top, its nails. ‘My desk stretches from the window to the door. It has spatial parts, and can be sliced (in space) in two. With respect to time, however, a thing is a continuant.’ [60, p. 240
BFO 2参考：持续实体是可以被分割的实体，只能沿着空间维度分割成部分，例如产生您的桌子的部分，我们称之为它的腿、顶部、指甲。 “我的桌子从窗户延伸到门口。它有空间部分，可以在空间切成两半。不过，就时间而言，一个事物是连续的。“[60，p。 240
Continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example, in an expansion involving bringing in some of Ceuster's other portions of reality, questions are raised as to whether universals are continuants
常体不具有闭合公理，因为子类不一定丧失所有可能性。例如，在涉及引入一些Ceuster的实体的其他部分的扩展中，提出了普遍性是否是连续性的问题
A continuant is an entity that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [008-002])
一个常体是一个持续、持久或持续存在且同时保持其身份的实体。 （BFO2中的公理标签参考：[008-002]）
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, c has_continuant_part b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [126-001])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, cis continuant_part of b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [009-002])
if b is a material entity, then there is some temporal interval (referred to below as a one-dimensional temporal region) during which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [011-002])
如果b是一个常体，并且如果对于某个t，c在t时刻具有_常体_部分b，则c是一个常体。 （BFO2公理标签参考：[126-001]）
如果b是一个常体，并且如果，对于某个t，c是在t时刻的b的常体_部分，则c是一个常体。 （BFO2公理标签参考：[009-002]）
如果b是物质实体，则在b存在期间有一些时间间隔（以下称为一维时间区域）。 （BFO2公理标签：[011-002]）
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [009-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [009-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (hasContinuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [126-001]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (hasContinuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [126-001]
(forall (x) (if (Continuant x) (Entity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [008-002]
(forall (x) (if (Continuant x) (Entity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [008-002]
(forall (x) (if (Material Entity x) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (existsAt x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [011-002]
(forall (x) (if (Material Entity x) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (existsAt x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [011-002]
continuant
continuant
常体
Continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. For example, in an expansion involving bringing in some of Ceuster's other portions of reality, questions are raised as to whether universals are continuants
A continuant is an entity that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [008-002])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, c has_continuant_part b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [126-001])
if b is a continuant and if, for some t, cis continuant_part of b at t, then c is a continuant. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [009-002])
if b is a material entity, then there is some temporal interval (referred to below as a one-dimensional temporal region) during which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [011-002])
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (continuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [009-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (Continuant x) (exists (t) (hasContinuantPartOfAt y x t))) (Continuant y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [126-001]
(forall (x) (if (Continuant x) (Entity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [008-002]
(forall (x) (if (Material Entity x) (exists (t) (and (TemporalRegion t) (existsAt x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [011-002]
occurrent
Occurrent
An entity that has temporal parts and that happens, unfolds or develops through time.
BFO 2 Reference: every occurrent that is not a temporal or spatiotemporal region is s-dependent on some independent continuant that is not a spatial region
BFO 2 Reference: s-dependence obtains between every process and its participants in the sense that, as a matter of necessity, this process could not have existed unless these or those participants existed also. A process may have a succession of participants at different phases of its unfolding. Thus there may be different players on the field at different times during the course of a football game; but the process which is the entire game s-depends_on all of these players nonetheless. Some temporal parts of this process will s-depend_on on only some of the players.
Occurrent doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the sum of a process and the process boundary of another process.
Simons uses different terminology for relations of occurrents to regions: Denote the spatio-temporal location of a given occurrent e by 'spn[e]' and call this region its span. We may say an occurrent is at its span, in any larger region, and covers any smaller region. Now suppose we have fixed a frame of reference so that we can speak not merely of spatio-temporal but also of spatial regions (places) and temporal regions (times). The spread of an occurrent, (relative to a frame of reference) is the space it exactly occupies, and its spell is likewise the time it exactly occupies. We write 'spr[e]' and `spl[e]' respectively for the spread and spell of e, omitting mention of the frame.
An occurrent is an entity that unfolds itself in time or it is the instantaneous boundary of such an entity (for example a beginning or an ending) or it is a temporal or spatiotemporal region which such an entity occupies_temporal_region or occupies_spatiotemporal_region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [077-002])
Every occurrent occupies_spatiotemporal_region some spatiotemporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [108-001])
b is an occurrent entity iff b is an entity that has temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [079-001])
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (exists (r) (and (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x r))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [108-001]
(forall (x) (iff (Occurrent x) (and (Entity x) (exists (y) (temporalPartOf y x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [079-001]
occurrent
Occurrent doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the sum of a process and the process boundary of another process.
per discussion with Barry Smith
Simons uses different terminology for relations of occurrents to regions: Denote the spatio-temporal location of a given occurrent e by 'spn[e]' and call this region its span. We may say an occurrent is at its span, in any larger region, and covers any smaller region. Now suppose we have fixed a frame of reference so that we can speak not merely of spatio-temporal but also of spatial regions (places) and temporal regions (times). The spread of an occurrent, (relative to a frame of reference) is the space it exactly occupies, and its spell is likewise the time it exactly occupies. We write 'spr[e]' and `spl[e]' respectively for the spread and spell of e, omitting mention of the frame.
An occurrent is an entity that unfolds itself in time or it is the instantaneous boundary of such an entity (for example a beginning or an ending) or it is a temporal or spatiotemporal region which such an entity occupies_temporal_region or occupies_spatiotemporal_region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [077-002])
Every occurrent occupies_spatiotemporal_region some spatiotemporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [108-001])
b is an occurrent entity iff b is an entity that has temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [079-001])
(forall (x) (if (Occurrent x) (exists (r) (and (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x r))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [108-001]
(forall (x) (iff (Occurrent x) (and (Entity x) (exists (y) (temporalPartOf y x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [079-001]
ic
IndependentContinuant
a chair
a heart
a leg
a molecule
a spatial region
an atom
an orchestra.
an organism
the bottom right portion of a human torso
the interior of your mouth
A continuant that is a bearer of quality and realizable entity entities, in which other entities inhere and which itself cannot inhere in anything.
b is an independent continuant = Def. b is a continuant which is such that there is no c and no t such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [017-002])
For any independent continuant b and any time t there is some spatial region r such that b is located_in r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [134-001])
For every independent continuant b and time t during the region of time spanned by its life, there are entities which s-depends_on b during t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [018-002])
(forall (x t) (if (IndependentContinuant x) (exists (r) (and (SpatialRegion r) (locatedInAt x r t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [134-001]
(forall (x t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (Entity y) (specificallyDependsOnAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [018-002]
(iff (IndependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (not (exists (b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [017-002]
independent continuant
独立常体
b is an independent continuant = Def. b is a continuant which is such that there is no c and no t such that b s-depends_on c at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [017-002])
For any independent continuant b and any time t there is some spatial region r such that b is located_in r at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [134-001])
For every independent continuant b and time t during the region of time spanned by its life, there are entities which s-depends_on b during t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [018-002])
(forall (x t) (if (IndependentContinuant x) (exists (r) (and (SpatialRegion r) (locatedInAt x r t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [134-001]
(forall (x t) (if (and (IndependentContinuant x) (existsAt x t)) (exists (y) (and (Entity y) (specificallyDependsOnAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [018-002]
(iff (IndependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (not (exists (b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [017-002]
s-region
SpatialRegion
BFO 2 Reference: Spatial regions do not participate in processes.
Spatial region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the union of a spatial point and a spatial line that doesn't overlap the point, or two spatial lines that intersect at a single point. In both cases the resultant spatial region is neither 0-dimensional, 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, or 3-dimensional.
A spatial region is a continuant entity that is a continuant_part_of spaceR as defined relative to some frame R. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [035-001])
All continuant parts of spatial regions are spatial regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [036-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (SpatialRegion x) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (SpatialRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [036-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatialRegion x) (Continuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [035-001]
spatial region
Spatial region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the union of a spatial point and a spatial line that doesn't overlap the point, or two spatial lines that intersect at a single point. In both cases the resultant spatial region is neither 0-dimensional, 1-dimensional, 2-dimensional, or 3-dimensional.
per discussion with Barry Smith
A spatial region is a continuant entity that is a continuant_part_of spaceR as defined relative to some frame R. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [035-001])
All continuant parts of spatial regions are spatial regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [036-001])
(forall (x y t) (if (and (SpatialRegion x) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)) (SpatialRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [036-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatialRegion x) (Continuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [035-001]
t-region
TemporalRegion
Temporal region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of a temporal instant and a temporal interval that doesn't overlap the instant. In this case the resultant temporal region is neither 0-dimensional nor 1-dimensional
A temporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of time as defined relative to some reference frame. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [100-001])
All parts of temporal regions are temporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [101-001])
Every temporal region t is such that t occupies_temporal_region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [119-002])
(forall (r) (if (TemporalRegion r) (occupiesTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [119-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (TemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (TemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [101-001]
(forall (x) (if (TemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [100-001]
temporal region
Temporal region doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of a temporal instant and a temporal interval that doesn't overlap the instant. In this case the resultant temporal region is neither 0-dimensional nor 1-dimensional
per discussion with Barry Smith
A temporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of time as defined relative to some reference frame. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [100-001])
All parts of temporal regions are temporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [101-001])
Every temporal region t is such that t occupies_temporal_region t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [119-002])
(forall (r) (if (TemporalRegion r) (occupiesTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [119-002]
(forall (x y) (if (and (TemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (TemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [101-001]
(forall (x) (if (TemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [100-001]
2d-s-region
TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion
an infinitely thin plane in space.
the surface of a sphere-shaped part of space
A two-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of two dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [039-001])
(forall (x) (if (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [039-001]
two-dimensional spatial region
A two-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of two dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [039-001])
(forall (x) (if (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [039-001]
st-region
SpatiotemporalRegion
the spatiotemporal region occupied by a human life
the spatiotemporal region occupied by a process of cellular meiosis.
the spatiotemporal region occupied by the development of a cancer tumor
A spatiotemporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of spacetime. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [095-001])
All parts of spatiotemporal regions are spatiotemporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [096-001])
Each spatiotemporal region at any time t projects_onto some spatial region at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [099-001])
Each spatiotemporal region projects_onto some temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [098-001])
Every spatiotemporal region occupies_spatiotemporal_region itself.
Every spatiotemporal region s is such that s occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [107-002])
(forall (r) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [107-002]
(forall (x t) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (SpatialRegion y) (spatiallyProjectsOntoAt x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [099-001]
(forall (x y) (if (and (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (SpatioTemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [096-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [095-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (TemporalRegion y) (temporallyProjectsOnto x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [098-001]
spatiotemporal region
A spatiotemporal region is an occurrent entity that is part of spacetime. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [095-001])
All parts of spatiotemporal regions are spatiotemporal regions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [096-001])
Each spatiotemporal region at any time t projects_onto some spatial region at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [099-001])
Each spatiotemporal region projects_onto some temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [098-001])
Every spatiotemporal region s is such that s occupies_spatiotemporal_region s. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [107-002])
(forall (r) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion r) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion r r))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [107-002]
(forall (x t) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (SpatialRegion y) (spatiallyProjectsOntoAt x y t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [099-001]
(forall (x y) (if (and (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (occurrentPartOf y x)) (SpatioTemporalRegion y))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [096-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (Occurrent x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [095-001]
(forall (x) (if (SpatioTemporalRegion x) (exists (y) (and (TemporalRegion y) (temporallyProjectsOnto x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [098-001]
process
Process
a process of cell-division, \ a beating of the heart
a process of meiosis
a process of sleeping
the course of a disease
the flight of a bird
the life of an organism
your process of aging.
An occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t.
p is a process = Def. p is an occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [083-003])
BFO 2 Reference: The realm of occurrents is less pervasively marked by the presence of natural units than is the case in the realm of independent continuants. Thus there is here no counterpart of ‘object’. In BFO 1.0 ‘process’ served as such a counterpart. In BFO 2.0 ‘process’ is, rather, the occurrent counterpart of ‘material entity’. Those natural – as contrasted with engineered, which here means: deliberately executed – units which do exist in the realm of occurrents are typically either parasitic on the existence of natural units on the continuant side, or they are fiat in nature. Thus we can count lives; we can count football games; we can count chemical reactions performed in experiments or in chemical manufacturing. We cannot count the processes taking place, for instance, in an episode of insect mating behavior.Even where natural units are identifiable, for example cycles in a cyclical process such as the beating of a heart or an organism’s sleep/wake cycle, the processes in question form a sequence with no discontinuities (temporal gaps) of the sort that we find for instance where billiard balls or zebrafish or planets are separated by clear spatial gaps. Lives of organisms are process units, but they too unfold in a continuous series from other, prior processes such as fertilization, and they unfold in turn in continuous series of post-life processes such as post-mortem decay. Clear examples of boundaries of processes are almost always of the fiat sort (midnight, a time of death as declared in an operating theater or on a death certificate, the initiation of a state of war)
(iff (Process a) (and (Occurrent a) (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)) (exists (c t) (and (MaterialEntity c) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [083-003]
bfo
BFO:0000015
process
process
p is a process = Def. p is an occurrent that has temporal proper parts and for some time t, p s-depends_on some material entity at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [083-003])
(iff (Process a) (and (Occurrent a) (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)) (exists (c t) (and (MaterialEntity c) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [083-003]
realizable
realizable
可实现的
RealizableEntity
RealizableEntity
可实现实体(RealizableEntity)
realizable entity
可实现实体
the disposition of this piece of metal to conduct electricity.
the disposition of your blood to coagulate
the function of your reproductive organs
the role of being a doctor
the role of this boundary to delineate where Utah and Colorado meet
作为医生的角色
你的生殖器官的功能
你的血液的凝结倾向
这个边界角色描绘了犹他州和科罗拉多州的交汇点
这块金属的导电倾向。
A specifically dependent continuant that inheres in continuant entities and are not exhibited in full at every time in which it inheres in an entity or group of entities. The exhibition or actualization of a realizable entity is a particular manifestation, functioning or process that occurs under certain circumstances.
一个特定依赖性常体，在常体实体中存在，并且在每个实体或一组实体中都不会全部展现出来。可实现实体的展示或实现是在特定情况下发生的特定表现、功能或过程。
To say that b is a realizable entity is to say that b is a specifically dependent continuant that inheres in some independent continuant which is not a spatial region and is of a type instances of which are realized in processes of a correlated type. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [058-002])
要说b是一个可实现实体，就是说b是一个特定依赖性常体，它存在于某些依赖常体中，这个连续体不是一个空间区域，而是一个在相关类型的过程中实现的类型实例。 （BFO2公理标签参考：[058-002]）
All realizable dependent continuants have independent continuants that are not spatial regions as their bearers. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [060-002])
所有可实现依赖常体都有独立常体，这些独立常体不是空间区域作为承载。 （BFO2公理标签参考：[060-002]）
(forall (x t) (if (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (bearerOfAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [060-002]
(forall (x t) (if (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (bearerOfAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [060-002]
(forall (x) (if (RealizableEntity x) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (inheresIn x y)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [058-002]
(forall (x) (if (RealizableEntity x) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (inheresIn x y)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [058-002]
realizable entity
可实现实体
To say that b is a realizable entity is to say that b is a specifically dependent continuant that inheres in some independent continuant which is not a spatial region and is of a type instances of which are realized in processes of a correlated type. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [058-002])
All realizable dependent continuants have independent continuants that are not spatial regions as their bearers. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [060-002])
(forall (x t) (if (RealizableEntity x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (bearerOfAt y x t))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [060-002]
(forall (x) (if (RealizableEntity x) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x) (exists (y) (and (IndependentContinuant y) (not (SpatialRegion y)) (inheresIn x y)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [058-002]
0d-s-region
ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion
A zero-dimensional spatial region is a point in space. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [037-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [037-001]
zero-dimensional spatial region
A zero-dimensional spatial region is a point in space. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [037-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [037-001]
quality
Quality
the ambient temperature of this portion of air
the color of a tomato
the length of the circumference of your waist
the mass of this piece of gold.
the shape of your nose
the shape of your nostril
a quality is a specifically dependent continuant that, in contrast to roles and dispositions, does not require any further process in order to be realized. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [055-001])
If an entity is a quality at any time that it exists, then it is a quality at every time that it exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [105-001])
(forall (x) (if (Quality x) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [055-001]
(forall (x) (if (exists (t) (and (existsAt x t) (Quality x))) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (Quality x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [105-001]
bfo
BFO:0000019
quality
quality
性质
a quality is a specifically dependent continuant that, in contrast to roles and dispositions, does not require any further process in order to be realized. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [055-001])
If an entity is a quality at any time that it exists, then it is a quality at every time that it exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [105-001])
(forall (x) (if (Quality x) (SpecificallyDependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [055-001]
(forall (x) (if (exists (t) (and (existsAt x t) (Quality x))) (forall (t_1) (if (existsAt x t_1) (Quality x))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [105-001]
sdc
sdc
SpecificallyDependentContinuant
SpecificallyDependentContinuant
特定依赖性常体(SpecificallyDependentContinuant)
specifically dependent continuant
特定依赖性常体
Reciprocal specifically dependent continuants: the function of this key to open this lock and the mutually dependent disposition of this lock: to be opened by this key
of one-sided specifically dependent continuants: the mass of this tomato
of relational dependent continuants (multiple bearers): John’s love for Mary, the ownership relation between John and this statue, the relation of authority between John and his subordinates.
the disposition of this fish to decay
the function of this heart: to pump blood
the mutual dependence of proton donors and acceptors in chemical reactions [79
the mutual dependence of the role predator and the role prey as played by two organisms in a given interaction
the pink color of a medium rare piece of grilled filet mignon at its center
the role of being a doctor
the shape of this hole.
the smell of this portion of mozzarella
交互特定依赖性常体：这个键的功能打开这个锁和这个锁的相互依赖的配置：被这个键打开
作为医生的角色
关系独立常体（对个载体）：约翰对玛丽的爱，约翰与这座雕像之间的所有关系，以及约翰与他的下属之间的权力关系。
在它中心的一块四分熟烤菲力牛排的粉色
局部特定依赖性常体：这个番茄的性质
捕食者角色和猎物角色的相互依赖由两个生物体在给定的相互作用中扮演
质子供体和受体在化学反应中的相互依赖[79
这个洞的形状。
这条鱼的腐烂倾向
这部分马苏里拉奶酪的气味
这颗心的功能：抽血
A continuant that inheres in or is borne by other entities. Every instance of A requires some specific instance of B which must always be the same.
A continuant that inheres in or is borne by other entities. Every instance of A requires some specific instance of B which must always be the same.
b is a relational specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a specifically dependent continuant and there are n > 1 independent continuants c1, … cn which are not spatial regions are such that for all 1 i < j n, ci and cj share no common parts, are such that for each 1 i n, b s-depends_on ci at every time t during the course of b’s existence (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [131-004])
b is a specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant & there is some independent continuant c which is not a spatial region and which is such that b s-depends_on c at every time t during the course of b’s existence. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [050-003])
b是一个关系特定依赖性常体 = Def. b是特定依赖性常体并且有n >1个独立常体c1，... cn不是空间区域且是这样的，即对于全部1个 i<j n，ci和cj没有共同的部分，对于每个1 i n，在b存在的过程中每个时间t，b s-依赖_于 ci（BFO2中的公理标号：[131-004]）
b是一个特定依赖性常体 = Def. b是一个常体& 存在一些独立常体c，c不是一个空间区域且是这样的，在b的存在过程地每个时间t，b s-依赖_于c。 （BFO2公理标签参考：[050-003]）
一个在其他实体中存在或由其他实体承担的常体。 A的每个实例都需要一些特定的B实例，这些B实例必须始终相同。
Specifically dependent continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. We're not sure what else will develop here, but for example there are questions such as what are promises, obligation, etc.
具体而言，相关常体不具有闭合公理，因为子类不一定丧失所有可能性。我们不确定在这里会发生什么，但是会有如什么是承诺，义务等等的问题。
(iff (RelationalSpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (forall (t) (exists (b c) (and (not (SpatialRegion b)) (not (SpatialRegion c)) (not (= b c)) (not (exists (d) (and (continuantPartOfAt d b t) (continuantPartOfAt d c t)))) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [131-004]
(iff (RelationalSpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (forall (t) (exists (b c) (and (not (SpatialRegion b)) (not (SpatialRegion c)) (not (= b c)) (not (exists (d) (and (continuantPartOfAt d b t) (continuantPartOfAt d c t)))) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [131-004]
(iff (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (forall (t) (if (existsAt a t) (exists (b) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [050-003]
(iff (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (forall (t) (if (existsAt a t) (exists (b) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [050-003]
specifically dependent continuant
特定依赖性常体
b is a relational specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a specifically dependent continuant and there are n > 1 independent continuants c1, … cn which are not spatial regions are such that for all 1 i < j n, ci and cj share no common parts, are such that for each 1 i n, b s-depends_on ci at every time t during the course of b’s existence (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [131-004])
b is a specifically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant & there is some independent continuant c which is not a spatial region and which is such that b s-depends_on c at every time t during the course of b’s existence. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [050-003])
Specifically dependent continuant doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. We're not sure what else will develop here, but for example there are questions such as what are promises, obligation, etc.
per discussion with Barry Smith
(iff (RelationalSpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (forall (t) (exists (b c) (and (not (SpatialRegion b)) (not (SpatialRegion c)) (not (= b c)) (not (exists (d) (and (continuantPartOfAt d b t) (continuantPartOfAt d c t)))) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t) (specificallyDependsOnAt a c t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [131-004]
(iff (SpecificallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (forall (t) (if (existsAt a t) (exists (b) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (not (SpatialRegion b)) (specificallyDependsOnAt a b t))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [050-003]
role
Role
John’s role of husband to Mary is dependent on Mary’s role of wife to John, and both are dependent on the object aggregate comprising John and Mary as member parts joined together through the relational quality of being married.
the priest role
the role of a boundary to demarcate two neighboring administrative territories
the role of a building in serving as a military target
the role of a stone in marking a property boundary
the role of subject in a clinical trial
the student role
A realizable entity the manifestation of which brings about some result or end that is not essential to a continuant in virtue of the kind of thing that it is but that can be served or participated in by that kind of continuant in some kinds of natural, social or institutional contexts.
BFO 2 Reference: One major family of examples of non-rigid universals involves roles, and ontologies developed for corresponding administrative purposes may consist entirely of representatives of entities of this sort. Thus ‘professor’, defined as follows,b instance_of professor at t =Def. there is some c, c instance_of professor role & c inheres_in b at t.denotes a non-rigid universal and so also do ‘nurse’, ‘student’, ‘colonel’, ‘taxpayer’, and so forth. (These terms are all, in the jargon of philosophy, phase sortals.) By using role terms in definitions, we can create a BFO conformant treatment of such entities drawing on the fact that, while an instance of professor may be simultaneously an instance of trade union member, no instance of the type professor role is also (at any time) an instance of the type trade union member role (any more than any instance of the type color is at any time an instance of the type length).If an ontology of employment positions should be defined in terms of roles following the above pattern, this enables the ontology to do justice to the fact that individuals instantiate the corresponding universals – professor, sergeant, nurse – only during certain phases in their lives.
b is a role means: b is a realizable entity & b exists because there is some single bearer that is in some special physical, social, or institutional set of circumstances in which this bearer does not have to be& b is not such that, if it ceases to exist, then the physical make-up of the bearer is thereby changed. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [061-001])
(forall (x) (if (Role x) (RealizableEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [061-001]
role
角色
b is a role means: b is a realizable entity & b exists because there is some single bearer that is in some special physical, social, or institutional set of circumstances in which this bearer does not have to be& b is not such that, if it ceases to exist, then the physical make-up of the bearer is thereby changed. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [061-001])
(forall (x) (if (Role x) (RealizableEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [061-001]
fiat-object
fiat-object-part
FiatObjectPart
or with divisions drawn by cognitive subjects for practical reasons, such as the division of a cake (before slicing) into (what will become) slices (and thus member parts of an object aggregate). However, this does not mean that fiat object parts are dependent for their existence on divisions or delineations effected by cognitive subjects. If, for example, it is correct to conceive geological layers of the Earth as fiat object parts of the Earth, then even though these layers were first delineated in recent times, still existed long before such delineation and what holds of these layers (for example that the oldest layers are also the lowest layers) did not begin to hold because of our acts of delineation.Treatment of material entity in BFOExamples viewed by some as problematic cases for the trichotomy of fiat object part, object, and object aggregate include: a mussel on (and attached to) a rock, a slime mold, a pizza, a cloud, a galaxy, a railway train with engine and multiple carriages, a clonal stand of quaking aspen, a bacterial community (biofilm), a broken femur. Note that, as Aristotle already clearly recognized, such problematic cases – which lie at or near the penumbra of instances defined by the categories in question – need not invalidate these categories. The existence of grey objects does not prove that there are not objects which are black and objects which are white; the existence of mules does not prove that there are not objects which are donkeys and objects which are horses. It does, however, show that the examples in question need to be addressed carefully in order to show how they can be fitted into the proposed scheme, for example by recognizing additional subdivisions [29
the FMA:regional parts of an intact human body.
the Western hemisphere of the Earth
the division of the brain into regions
the division of the planet into hemispheres
the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body
the upper and lower lobes of the left lung
BFO 2 Reference: Most examples of fiat object parts are associated with theoretically drawn divisions
b is a fiat object part = Def. b is a material entity which is such that for all times t, if b exists at t then there is some object c such that b proper continuant_part of c at t and c is demarcated from the remainder of c by a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [027-004])
(forall (x) (if (FiatObjectPart x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y) (and (Object y) (properContinuantPartOfAt x y t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [027-004]
bfo
BFO:0000024
fiat object
fiat object part
fiat object part
b is a fiat object part = Def. b is a material entity which is such that for all times t, if b exists at t then there is some object c such that b proper continuant_part of c at t and c is demarcated from the remainder of c by a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [027-004])
(forall (x) (if (FiatObjectPart x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y) (and (Object y) (properContinuantPartOfAt x y t)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [027-004]
1d-s-region
OneDimensionalSpatialRegion
an edge of a cube-shaped portion of space.
A one-dimensional spatial region is a line or aggregate of lines stretching from one point in space to another. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [038-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [038-001]
one-dimensional spatial region
A one-dimensional spatial region is a line or aggregate of lines stretching from one point in space to another. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [038-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [038-001]
object-aggregate
ObjectAggregate
a collection of cells in a blood biobank.
a swarm of bees is an aggregate of members who are linked together through natural bonds
a symphony orchestra
an organization is an aggregate whose member parts have roles of specific types (for example in a jazz band, a chess club, a football team)
defined by fiat: the aggregate of members of an organization
defined through physical attachment: the aggregate of atoms in a lump of granite
defined through physical containment: the aggregate of molecules of carbon dioxide in a sealed container
defined via attributive delimitations such as: the patients in this hospital
the aggregate of bearings in a constant velocity axle joint
the aggregate of blood cells in your body
the nitrogen atoms in the atmosphere
the restaurants in Palo Alto
your collection of Meissen ceramic plates.
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
BFO 2 Reference: object aggregates may gain and lose parts while remaining numerically identical (one and the same individual) over time. This holds both for aggregates whose membership is determined naturally (the aggregate of cells in your body) and aggregates determined by fiat (a baseball team, a congressional committee).
ISBN:978-3-938793-98-5pp124-158#Thomas Bittner and Barry Smith, 'A Theory of Granular Partitions', in K. Munn and B. Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction, Frankfurt/Lancaster: ontos, 2008, 125-158.
b is an object aggregate means: b is a material entity consisting exactly of a plurality of objects as member_parts at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [025-004])
(forall (x) (if (ObjectAggregate x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y z) (and (Object y) (Object z) (memberPartOfAt y x t) (memberPartOfAt z x t) (not (= y z)))))) (not (exists (w t_1) (and (memberPartOfAt w x t_1) (not (Object w)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [025-004]
object aggregate
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
An entity a is an object aggregate if and only if there is a mutually exhaustive and pairwise disjoint partition of a into objects
ISBN:978-3-938793-98-5pp124-158#Thomas Bittner and Barry Smith, 'A Theory of Granular Partitions', in K. Munn and B. Smith (eds.), Applied Ontology: An Introduction, Frankfurt/Lancaster: ontos, 2008, 125-158.
b is an object aggregate means: b is a material entity consisting exactly of a plurality of objects as member_parts at all times at which b exists. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [025-004])
(forall (x) (if (ObjectAggregate x) (and (MaterialEntity x) (forall (t) (if (existsAt x t) (exists (y z) (and (Object y) (Object z) (memberPartOfAt y x t) (memberPartOfAt z x t) (not (= y z)))))) (not (exists (w t_1) (and (memberPartOfAt w x t_1) (not (Object w)))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [025-004]
3d-s-region
ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion
a cube-shaped region of space
a sphere-shaped region of space,
A three-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of three dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [040-001])
(forall (x) (if (ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [040-001]
three-dimensional spatial region
A three-dimensional spatial region is a spatial region that is of three dimensions. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [040-001])
(forall (x) (if (ThreeDimensionalSpatialRegion x) (SpatialRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [040-001]
site
Site
Manhattan Canyon)
a hole in the interior of a portion of cheese
a rabbit hole
an air traffic control region defined in the airspace above an airport
the Grand Canyon
the Piazza San Marco
the cockpit of an aircraft
the hold of a ship
the interior of a kangaroo pouch
the interior of the trunk of your car
the interior of your bedroom
the interior of your office
the interior of your refrigerator
the lumen of your gut
your left nostril (a fiat part – the opening – of your left nasal cavity)
b is a site means: b is a three-dimensional immaterial entity that is (partially or wholly) bounded by a material entity or it is a three-dimensional immaterial part thereof. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [034-002])
(forall (x) (if (Site x) (ImmaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [034-002]
site
b is a site means: b is a three-dimensional immaterial entity that is (partially or wholly) bounded by a material entity or it is a three-dimensional immaterial part thereof. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [034-002])
(forall (x) (if (Site x) (ImmaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [034-002]
object
Object
atom
cell
cells and organisms
engineered artifacts
grain of sand
molecule
organelle
organism
planet
solid portions of matter
star
BFO 2 Reference: BFO rests on the presupposition that at multiple micro-, meso- and macroscopic scales reality exhibits certain stable, spatially separated or separable material units, combined or combinable into aggregates of various sorts (for example organisms into what are called ‘populations’). Such units play a central role in almost all domains of natural science from particle physics to cosmology. Many scientific laws govern the units in question, employing general terms (such as ‘molecule’ or ‘planet’) referring to the types and subtypes of units, and also to the types and subtypes of the processes through which such units develop and interact. The division of reality into such natural units is at the heart of biological science, as also is the fact that these units may form higher-level units (as cells form multicellular organisms) and that they may also form aggregates of units, for example as cells form portions of tissue and organs form families, herds, breeds, species, and so on. At the same time, the division of certain portions of reality into engineered units (manufactured artifacts) is the basis of modern industrial technology, which rests on the distributed mass production of engineered parts through division of labor and on their assembly into larger, compound units such as cars and laptops. The division of portions of reality into units is one starting point for the phenomenon of counting.
BFO 2 Reference: Each object is such that there are entities of which we can assert unproblematically that they lie in its interior, and other entities of which we can assert unproblematically that they lie in its exterior. This may not be so for entities lying at or near the boundary between the interior and exterior. This means that two objects – for example the two cells depicted in Figure 3 – may be such that there are material entities crossing their boundaries which belong determinately to neither cell. Something similar obtains in certain cases of conjoined twins (see below).
BFO 2 Reference: To say that b is causally unified means: b is a material entity which is such that its material parts are tied together in such a way that, in environments typical for entities of the type in question,if c, a continuant part of b that is in the interior of b at t, is larger than a certain threshold size (which will be determined differently from case to case, depending on factors such as porosity of external cover) and is moved in space to be at t at a location on the exterior of the spatial region that had been occupied by b at t, then either b’s other parts will be moved in coordinated fashion or b will be damaged (be affected, for example, by breakage or tearing) in the interval between t and t.causal changes in one part of b can have consequences for other parts of b without the mediation of any entity that lies on the exterior of b. Material entities with no proper material parts would satisfy these conditions trivially. Candidate examples of types of causal unity for material entities of more complex sorts are as follows (this is not intended to be an exhaustive list):CU1: Causal unity via physical coveringHere the parts in the interior of the unified entity are combined together causally through a common membrane or other physical covering\. The latter points outwards toward and may serve a protective function in relation to what lies on the exterior of the entity [13, 47
BFO 2 Reference: an object is a maximal causally unified material entity
BFO 2 Reference: ‘objects’ are sometimes referred to as ‘grains’ [74
b is an object means: b is a material entity which manifests causal unity of one or other of the types CUn listed above & is of a type (a material universal) instances of which are maximal relative to this criterion of causal unity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [024-001])
bfo
BFO:0000030
object
object
b is an object means: b is a material entity which manifests causal unity of one or other of the types CUn listed above & is of a type (a material universal) instances of which are maximal relative to this criterion of causal unity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [024-001])
gdc
GenericallyDependentContinuant
The entries in your database are patterns instantiated as quality instances in your hard drive. The database itself is an aggregate of such patterns. When you create the database you create a particular instance of the generically dependent continuant type database. Each entry in the database is an instance of the generically dependent continuant type IAO: information content entity.
the pdf file on your laptop, the pdf file that is a copy thereof on my laptop
the sequence of this protein molecule; the sequence that is a copy thereof in that protein molecule.
A continuant that is dependent on one or other independent continuant bearers. For every instance of A requires some instance of (an independent continuant type) B but which instance of B serves can change from time to time.
b is a generically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant that g-depends_on one or more other entities. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [074-001])
(iff (GenericallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (exists (b t) (genericallyDependsOnAt a b t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [074-001]
generically dependent continuant
普遍依赖性常体
b is a generically dependent continuant = Def. b is a continuant that g-depends_on one or more other entities. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [074-001])
(iff (GenericallyDependentContinuant a) (and (Continuant a) (exists (b t) (genericallyDependsOnAt a b t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [074-001]
function
Function
the function of a hammer to drive in nails
the function of a heart pacemaker to regulate the beating of a heart through electricity
the function of amylase in saliva to break down starch into sugar
BFO 2 Reference: In the past, we have distinguished two varieties of function, artifactual function and biological function. These are not asserted subtypes of BFO:function however, since the same function – for example: to pump, to transport – can exist both in artifacts and in biological entities. The asserted subtypes of function that would be needed in order to yield a separate monoheirarchy are not artifactual function, biological function, etc., but rather transporting function, pumping function, etc.
A function is a disposition that exists in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up and this physical make-up is something the bearer possesses because it came into being, either through evolution (in the case of natural biological entities) or through intentional design (in the case of artifacts), in order to realize processes of a certain sort. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [064-001])
(forall (x) (if (Function x) (Disposition x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [064-001]
function
A function is a disposition that exists in virtue of the bearer’s physical make-up and this physical make-up is something the bearer possesses because it came into being, either through evolution (in the case of natural biological entities) or through intentional design (in the case of artifacts), in order to realize processes of a certain sort. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [064-001])
(forall (x) (if (Function x) (Disposition x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [064-001]
p-boundary
ProcessBoundary
the boundary between the 2nd and 3rd year of your life.
p is a process boundary =Def. p is a temporal part of a process & p has no proper temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [084-001])
Every process boundary occupies_temporal_region a zero-dimensional temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [085-002])
(forall (x) (if (ProcessBoundary x) (exists (y) (and (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion y) (occupiesTemporalRegion x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [085-002]
(iff (ProcessBoundary a) (exists (p) (and (Process p) (temporalPartOf a p) (not (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [084-001]
process boundary
p is a process boundary =Def. p is a temporal part of a process & p has no proper temporal parts. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [084-001])
Every process boundary occupies_temporal_region a zero-dimensional temporal region. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [085-002])
(forall (x) (if (ProcessBoundary x) (exists (y) (and (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion y) (occupiesTemporalRegion x y))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [085-002]
(iff (ProcessBoundary a) (exists (p) (and (Process p) (temporalPartOf a p) (not (exists (b) (properTemporalPartOf b a)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [084-001]
1d-t-region
OneDimensionalTemporalRegion
the temporal region during which a process occurs.
BFO 2 Reference: A temporal interval is a special kind of one-dimensional temporal region, namely one that is self-connected (is without gaps or breaks).
A one-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is extended. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [103-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [103-001]
one-dimensional temporal region
A one-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is extended. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [103-001])
(forall (x) (if (OneDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [103-001]
material
MaterialEntity
a flame
a forest fire
a human being
a hurricane
a photon
a puff of smoke
a sea wave
a tornado
an aggregate of human beings.
an energy wave
an epidemic
the undetached arm of a human being
An independent continuant that is spatially extended whose identity is independent of that of other entities and can be maintained through time.
BFO 2 Reference: Material entities (continuants) can preserve their identity even while gaining and losing material parts. Continuants are contrasted with occurrents, which unfold themselves in successive temporal parts or phases [60
BFO 2 Reference: Object, Fiat Object Part and Object Aggregate are not intended to be exhaustive of Material Entity. Users are invited to propose new subcategories of Material Entity.
BFO 2 Reference: ‘Matter’ is intended to encompass both mass and energy (we will address the ontological treatment of portions of energy in a later version of BFO). A portion of matter is anything that includes elementary particles among its proper or improper parts: quarks and leptons, including electrons, as the smallest particles thus far discovered; baryons (including protons and neutrons) at a higher level of granularity; atoms and molecules at still higher levels, forming the cells, organs, organisms and other material entities studied by biologists, the portions of rock studied by geologists, the fossils studied by paleontologists, and so on.Material entities are three-dimensional entities (entities extended in three spatial dimensions), as contrasted with the processes in which they participate, which are four-dimensional entities (entities extended also along the dimension of time).According to the FMA, material entities may have immaterial entities as parts – including the entities identified below as sites; for example the interior (or ‘lumen’) of your small intestine is a part of your body. BFO 2.0 embodies a decision to follow the FMA here.
A material entity is an independent continuant that has some portion of matter as proper or improper continuant part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [019-002])
Every entity which has a material entity as continuant part is a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [020-002])
every entity of which a material entity is continuant part is also a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [021-002])
(forall (x) (if (MaterialEntity x) (IndependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [019-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt x y t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [021-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [020-002]
bfo
BFO:0000040
material entity
material entity
A material entity is an independent continuant that has some portion of matter as proper or improper continuant part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [019-002])
Every entity which has a material entity as continuant part is a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [020-002])
every entity of which a material entity is continuant part is also a material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [021-002])
(forall (x) (if (MaterialEntity x) (IndependentContinuant x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [019-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt x y t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [021-002]
(forall (x) (if (and (Entity x) (exists (y t) (and (MaterialEntity y) (continuantPartOfAt y x t)))) (MaterialEntity x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [020-002]
cf-boundary
ContinuantFiatBoundary
b is a continuant fiat boundary = Def. b is an immaterial entity that is of zero, one or two dimensions and does not include a spatial region as part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [029-001])
BFO 2 Reference: In BFO 1.1 the assumption was made that the external surface of a material entity such as a cell could be treated as if it were a boundary in the mathematical sense. The new document propounds the view that when we talk about external surfaces of material objects in this way then we are talking about something fiat. To be dealt with in a future version: fiat boundaries at different levels of granularity.More generally, the focus in discussion of boundaries in BFO 2.0 is now on fiat boundaries, which means: boundaries for which there is no assumption that they coincide with physical discontinuities. The ontology of boundaries becomes more closely allied with the ontology of regions.
BFO 2 Reference: a continuant fiat boundary is a boundary of some material entity (for example: the plane separating the Northern and Southern hemispheres; the North Pole), or it is a boundary of some immaterial entity (for example of some portion of airspace). Three basic kinds of continuant fiat boundary can be distinguished (together with various combination kinds [29
Continuant fiat boundary doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary and a one dimensional continuant fiat boundary that doesn't overlap it. The situation is analogous to temporal and spatial regions.
Every continuant fiat boundary is located at some spatial region at every time at which it exists
(iff (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ImmaterialEntity a) (exists (b) (and (or (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b)) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))) (not (exists (c t) (and (SpatialRegion c) (continuantPartOfAt c a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [029-001]
continuant fiat boundary
b is a continuant fiat boundary = Def. b is an immaterial entity that is of zero, one or two dimensions and does not include a spatial region as part. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [029-001])
Continuant fiat boundary doesn't have a closure axiom because the subclasses don't necessarily exhaust all possibilites. An example would be the mereological sum of two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary and a one dimensional continuant fiat boundary that doesn't overlap it. The situation is analogous to temporal and spatial regions.
(iff (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ImmaterialEntity a) (exists (b) (and (or (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b)) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))) (not (exists (c t) (and (SpatialRegion c) (continuantPartOfAt c a t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [029-001]
immaterial
ImmaterialEntity
BFO 2 Reference: Immaterial entities are divided into two subgroups:boundaries and sites, which bound, or are demarcated in relation, to material entities, and which can thus change location, shape and size and as their material hosts move or change shape or size (for example: your nasal passage; the hold of a ship; the boundary of Wales (which moves with the rotation of the Earth) [38, 7, 10
immaterial entity
1d-cf-boundary
OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
The Equator
all geopolitical boundaries
all lines of latitude and longitude
the line separating the outer surface of the mucosa of the lower lip from the outer surface of the skin of the chin.
the median sulcus of your tongue
a one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a continuous fiat line whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [032-001])
(iff (OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [032-001]
one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
a one-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a continuous fiat line whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [032-001])
(iff (OneDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (OneDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [032-001]
process-profile
ProcessProfile
On a somewhat higher level of complexity are what we shall call rate process profiles, which are the targets of selective abstraction focused not on determinate quality magnitudes plotted over time, but rather on certain ratios between these magnitudes and elapsed times. A speed process profile, for example, is represented by a graph plotting against time the ratio of distance covered per unit of time. Since rates may change, and since such changes, too, may have rates of change, we have to deal here with a hierarchy of process profile universals at successive levels
One important sub-family of rate process profiles is illustrated by the beat or frequency profiles of cyclical processes, illustrated by the 60 beats per minute beating process of John’s heart, or the 120 beats per minute drumming process involved in one of John’s performances in a rock band, and so on. Each such process includes what we shall call a beat process profile instance as part, a subtype of rate process profile in which the salient ratio is not distance covered but rather number of beat cycles per unit of time. Each beat process profile instance instantiates the determinable universal beat process profile. But it also instantiates multiple more specialized universals at lower levels of generality, selected from rate process profilebeat process profileregular beat process profile3 bpm beat process profile4 bpm beat process profileirregular beat process profileincreasing beat process profileand so on.In the case of a regular beat process profile, a rate can be assigned in the simplest possible fashion by dividing the number of cycles by the length of the temporal region occupied by the beating process profile as a whole. Irregular process profiles of this sort, for example as identified in the clinic, or in the readings on an aircraft instrument panel, are often of diagnostic significance.
The simplest type of process profiles are what we shall call ‘quality process profiles’, which are the process profiles which serve as the foci of the sort of selective abstraction that is involved when measurements are made of changes in single qualities, as illustrated, for example, by process profiles of mass, temperature, aortic pressure, and so on.
b is a process_profile =Def. there is some process c such that b process_profile_of c (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [093-002])
b process_profile_of c holds when b proper_occurrent_part_of c& there is some proper_occurrent_part d of c which has no parts in common with b & is mutually dependent on b& is such that b, c and d occupy the same temporal region (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [094-005])
(forall (x y) (if (processProfileOf x y) (and (properContinuantPartOf x y) (exists (z t) (and (properOccurrentPartOf z y) (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion y t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion z t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x) (occurrentPartOf w z))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [094-005]
(iff (ProcessProfile a) (exists (b) (and (Process b) (processProfileOf a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [093-002]
process profile
b is a process_profile =Def. there is some process c such that b process_profile_of c (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [093-002])
b process_profile_of c holds when b proper_occurrent_part_of c& there is some proper_occurrent_part d of c which has no parts in common with b & is mutually dependent on b& is such that b, c and d occupy the same temporal region (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [094-005])
(forall (x y) (if (processProfileOf x y) (and (properContinuantPartOf x y) (exists (z t) (and (properOccurrentPartOf z y) (TemporalRegion t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion x t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion y t) (occupiesSpatioTemporalRegion z t) (not (exists (w) (and (occurrentPartOf w x) (occurrentPartOf w z))))))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [094-005]
(iff (ProcessProfile a) (exists (b) (and (Process b) (processProfileOf a b)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [093-002]
2
r-quality
RelationalQuality
John’s role of husband to Mary is dependent on Mary’s role of wife to John, and both are dependent on the object aggregate comprising John and Mary as member parts joined together through the relational quality of being married.
a marriage bond, an instance of love, an obligation between one person and another.
a marriage bond, an instance of requited love, an obligation between one person and another.
b is a relational quality = Def. for some independent continuants c, d and for some time t: b quality_of c at t & b quality_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [057-001])
(iff (RelationalQuality a) (exists (b c t) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (IndependentContinuant c) (qualityOfAt a b t) (qualityOfAt a c t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [057-001]
relational quality
2
b is a relational quality = Def. for some independent continuants c, d and for some time t: b quality_of c at t & b quality_of d at t. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [057-001])
(iff (RelationalQuality a) (exists (b c t) (and (IndependentContinuant b) (IndependentContinuant c) (qualityOfAt a b t) (qualityOfAt a c t)))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [057-001]
2d-cf-boundary
TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary (surface) is a self-connected fiat surface whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [033-001])
(iff (TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [033-001]
two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
a two-dimensional continuant fiat boundary (surface) is a self-connected fiat surface whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [033-001])
(iff (TwoDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (TwoDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [033-001]
0d-cf-boundary
ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary
the geographic North Pole
the point of origin of some spatial coordinate system.
the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet
zero dimension continuant fiat boundaries are not spatial points. Considering the example 'the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet' : There are many frames in which that point is zooming through many points in space. Whereas, no matter what the frame, the quadripoint is always in the same relation to the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona.
a zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a fiat point whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [031-001])
(iff (ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [031-001]
zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary
zero dimension continuant fiat boundaries are not spatial points. Considering the example 'the quadripoint where the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona meet' : There are many frames in which that point is zooming through many points in space. Whereas, no matter what the frame, the quadripoint is always in the same relation to the boundaries of Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona.
requested by Melanie Courtot
a zero-dimensional continuant fiat boundary is a fiat point whose location is defined in relation to some material entity. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [031-001])
(iff (ZeroDimensionalContinuantFiatBoundary a) (and (ContinuantFiatBoundary a) (exists (b) (and (ZeroDimensionalSpatialRegion b) (forall (t) (locatedInAt a b t)))))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [031-001]
0d-t-region
ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion
a temporal region that is occupied by a process boundary
right now
the moment at which a child is born
the moment at which a finger is detached in an industrial accident
the moment of death.
temporal instant.
A zero-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is without extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [102-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [102-001]
zero-dimensional temporal region
A zero-dimensional temporal region is a temporal region that is without extent. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [102-001])
(forall (x) (if (ZeroDimensionalTemporalRegion x) (TemporalRegion x))) // axiom label in BFO2 CLIF: [102-001]
history
History
A history is a process that is the sum of the totality of processes taking place in the spatiotemporal region occupied by a material entity or site, including processes on the surface of the entity or within the cavities to which it serves as host. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [138-001])
history
A history is a process that is the sum of the totality of processes taking place in the spatiotemporal region occupied by a material entity or site, including processes on the surface of the entity or within the cavities to which it serves as host. (axiom label in BFO2 Reference: [138-001])
anatomical entity
connected anatomical structure
material anatomical entity
immaterial anatomical entity
multi-cell-part structure
neuron projection bundle
multicellular anatomical structure
biological entity
molecular entity
Any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity.
We are assuming that every molecular entity has to be completely connected by chemical bonds. This excludes protein complexes, which are comprised of minimally two separate molecular entities. We will follow up with Chebi to ensure this is their understanding as well
molecular entity
chebi_ontology
entidad molecular
entidades moleculares
entite moleculaire
molecular entities
molekulare Entitaet
CHEBI:23367
molecular entity
Any constitutionally or isotopically distinct atom, molecule, ion, ion pair, radical, radical ion, complex, conformer etc., identifiable as a separately distinguishable entity.
fake:2
molecular entity
IUPAC
entidad molecular
IUPAC
entidades moleculares
IUPAC
entite moleculaire
IUPAC
molecular entities
IUPAC
molekulare Entitaet
ChEBI
A chemical entity is a physical entity of interest in chemistry including molecular entities, parts thereof, and chemical substances.
chemical entity
chebi_ontology
CHEBI:24431
chemical entity
chemical entity
UniProt
a maintaining cell culture process that keeps cell line cell alive and actively cultured.
a maintaining cell culture process that keeps cell line cell alive and actively cultured.
维持细胞株存活和活跃培养的细胞培养过程。
YH
YH
cell line cell culturing
cell line cell culturing
细胞系细胞培养
cell line cell
cell line cell
细胞系细胞
A cultured cell that is part of a cell line - a stable and homogeneous population of cells with a common biological origin and propagation history in culture
A cultured cell that is part of a cell line - a stable and homogeneous population of cells with a common biological origin and propagation history in culture
一个培养细胞，它是一个细胞株（一个稳定的，同质的细胞群，具有共同的生物学起源和增殖史）的一部分
一个培养细胞，它是一个细胞株（一个稳定的，同质的细胞群，具有共同的生物学起源和增殖史）的一部分
Yongqun He, Matthew Brush, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Alexander Diehl, Jie Zheng, Yu Lin, Bjoern Peters
Yongqun He, Matthew Brush, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Alexander Diehl, Jie Zheng, Yu Lin, Bjoern Peters
A 'cell line cell' is a part of a cell line established through the passaging/selection of a primary cultured cells or the experimental modification of an existing cell line. New types of cell line cells are established after sufficient passaging of a primary culture to establish a stable and homogenous population that qualifies as a line (typically 1-20 passages), or following some spontaneous or experimental modification that confers novel characteristics to an existing line. A cell line cell typically has mutations of five or more genes compared to the original cell that derives the cell line cell. Some gene mutations may turn on some oncogenes. Cell line cells can be in active culture, stored in a quiescent state for future use (e.g. frozen in liquid nitrogen), or applied in experimental procedures.
A 'cell line cell' is a part of a cell line established through the passaging/selection of a primary cultured cells or the experimental modification of an existing cell line. New types of cell line cells are established after sufficient passaging of a primary culture to establish a stable and homogenous population that qualifies as a line (typically 1-20 passages), or following some spontaneous or experimental modification that confers novel characteristics to an existing line. A cell line cell typically has mutations of five or more genes compared to the original cell that derives the cell line cell. Some gene mutations may turn on some oncogenes. Cell line cells can be in active culture, stored in a quiescent state for future use (e.g. frozen in liquid nitrogen), or applied in experimental procedures.
“细胞系细胞”是通过原代培养细胞的传代/选择或现有细胞系的实验性修饰而建立的细胞系的一部分。新类型的细胞系细胞的建立过程是原代培养物充分传代后以建立符合条件（典型地1-20代）的稳定且同质的群体，或者在某些自发或实验性修饰之后赋予现有细胞系新的特征。与产生细胞系细胞的原始细胞相比，细胞系细胞通常具有5个或更多个基因的突变。 一些基因突变可能会开启一些致癌基因。 细胞系细胞可处于活性培养物中，以静止状态储存以供将来使用（例如在液氮中冷冻），或者在实验程序使用。
cell line cell
cell line cell
细胞系细胞
suspension cell line culturing is a cell line culturing method where cells do not require a surface for growth and differentiation. This method is appropriate for cells that are adapted to suspension culture or cells that are non-adhesive (e.g. hematopoietic cells)
suspension cell line culturing is a cell line culturing method where cells do not require a surface for growth and differentiation. This method is appropriate for cells that are adapted to suspension culture or cells that are non-adhesive (e.g. hematopoietic cells)
悬浮细胞系培养是其中细胞不需要生长和分化表面的细胞系培养方法。 该方法适用于适合悬浮培养的细胞或非贴壁细胞（如造血细胞）
suspension cell line culturing
suspension cell line culturing
悬浮细胞培养
adherent cell line culturing is a cell line culturing method where cells require a surface for growth and differentiation.
adherent cell line culturing is a cell line culturing method where cells require a surface for growth and differentiation.
贴壁细胞系培养是一种细胞系培养方法，其中细胞需要一个表面进行生长和分化。
adherent cell line culturing
adherent cell line culturing
贴壁细胞系培养
a role that inheres in a cell line repository organization.
a role that inheres in a cell line repository organization.
一个细胞系资源组织中所起的作用
SS, YH
SS, YH
cell line repository role
cell line repository role
细胞库角色
an organization that serves as a repository of cell lines.
an organization that serves as a repository of cell lines.
一个作为细胞系存储库的组织。
SS, YH
SS, YH
cell line repository
cell line repository
细胞库
adherent on coated surface cell line culturing is an adherent cell line culturing method that the surface is coated with extracellular matrix component to increase adhesion properties and provide other signals needed for growth and differentiation.
adherent on coated surface cell line culturing
adherent on feeder cells cell line culturing
adherent on feeder cells cell line culturing
在饲养细胞上贴壁培养细胞系
adherent-patchy cell line culturing
adherent-patchy cell line culturing
贴壁斑片状细胞培养
loosely adherent cell line culturing
loosely adherent cell line culturing
松散贴壁细胞培养
immortal cell line cell
immortal cell line cell
永生细胞系细胞
A cell line cell that is expected to be capable of an unlimited number of divisions, and is thus able to support indefinite propagation in vitro as part of an immortal cell line.
A cell line cell that is expected to be capable of an unlimited number of divisions, and is thus able to support indefinite propagation in vitro as part of an immortal cell line.
预期能够进行无限次分裂的细胞系细胞，作为永生细胞系一部分，能够支持体外无限增殖。
Yongqun He, Matthew Brush, Allen Xiang, Asiyah Yu Lin, Sirarat Sarntivijai, James Malone, Jie Zheng, Tomasz Adamusiak
Yongqun He, Matthew Brush, Allen Xiang, Asiyah Yu Lin, Sirarat Sarntivijai, James Malone, Jie Zheng, Tomasz Adamusiak
continuous cell line cell
continuous cell line cell
permanent cell line cell
permanent cell line cell
永久细胞系细胞
连续细胞系细胞
immortal cell line cell
immortal cell line cell
永生细胞系细胞
a cell culture growth mode that indicates a cell needs to adhere to a cell culture plate to grow.
a cell culture growth mode that indicates a cell needs to adhere to a cell culture plate to grow.
一种细胞培养生长模式：细胞需要粘附在细胞培养板上生长
YH
YH
adherent cell culture growth mode
adherent cell culture growth mode
贴壁细胞培养生长模式
a cell culture growth mode that indicates a cell can grow when the cell is suspended in cell culture medium.
a cell culture growth mode that indicates a cell can grow when the cell is suspended in cell culture medium.
一种细胞培养生长模式：当细胞悬浮在细胞培养基中时，细胞可以生长
YH
YH
suspension cell culture growth mode
suspension cell culture growth mode
悬浮细胞培养生长模式
a disposition that represents a mode of cell culture growth, i.e., the cell will grow at a specific cell culture mode. For example, an adherent cell culture growh mode means that the cell will grow when the cell is adhere to a cell culture plate.
a disposition that represents a mode of cell culture growth, i.e., the cell will grow at a specific cell culture mode. For example, an adherent cell culture growh mode means that the cell will grow when the cell is adhere to a cell culture plate.
一种代表细胞培养生长模式的配置，即细胞将以特定细胞培养模式生长。 例如，贴壁细胞培养生长模式意味着当细胞粘附于细胞培养板时细胞将生长。
YH
YH
cell culture growth mode
cell culture growth mode
细胞培养生长模式
cell line
A cultured cell population that represents a genetically stable and homogenous population of cultured cells that shares a common propagation history (i.e. has been successively passaged together in culture).
A cultured cell population that represents a genetically stable and homogenous population of cultured cells that shares a common propagation history (i.e. has been successively passaged together in culture).
cell line
细胞系
mixed adherent and suspension cell line culturing
mixed adherent and suspension cell line culturing
混合贴壁悬浮细胞培养
mixed suspension
clusters in suspension cell line culturing
clusters in suspension cell line culturing
在悬浮细胞系培养中的成簇细胞
suspension with feeder cells cell line culturing
suspension-multicell aggregates cell line culturing
a immortal cell line that is dervied from mouse tissue.
a immortal cell line that is dervied from mouse tissue.
从老鼠组织中得到的一种永生细胞系。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal mouse cell line
永生的小鼠细胞系
immortal mouse cell line cell
immortal mouse cell line cell
永生的小鼠细胞系细胞
YH
a immortal cell line that is dervied from mouse macrophage.
immortal mouse macrophage cell line
a cell line that is derived from motile cell
a cell line that is derived from motile cell
源自运动细胞的细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal motile cell line
immortal motile cell line
永生的游动细胞系
immortal motile cell line cell
immortal motile cell line cell
永生的游动细胞系细胞
a immortal motile cell line that is derived from leukocyte
a immortal motile cell line that is derived from leukocyte
源自白细胞的永生游动细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal leukocyte cell line
immortal leukocyte cell line
永生的白细胞系
immortal leukocyte cell line cell
immortal leukocyte cell line cell
永生的白细胞系细胞
a immortal leukocyte cell line that is derived from myeloid leukocyte
a immortal leukocyte cell line that is derived from myeloid leukocyte
源自髓系白细胞的永生白细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal myeloid leukocyte cell line
immortal myeloid leukocyte cell line
永生的髓样白血球细胞系
immortal myeloid leukocyte cell line cell
immortal myeloid leukocyte cell line cell
永生的髓样白血球细胞系细胞
a immortal myeloid leukocyte cell line that is derived from monocyte
a immortal myeloid leukocyte cell line that is derived from monocyte
源自单核细胞的永生髓系白细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal monocyte cell line
immortal monocyte cell line
永生的单核细胞系
immortal monocyte cell line cell
immortal monocyte cell line cell
永生的单核细胞系细胞
a immortal leukocyte cell line that is derived from nongranular leukocyte
a immortal leukocyte cell line that is derived from nongranular leukocyte
源自无粒白细胞的永生白细胞细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal nongranular leukocyte cell line
immortal nongranular leukocyte cell line
永生的无颗粒白细胞细胞系
immortal nongranular leukocyte cell line cell
immortal nongranular leukocyte cell line cell
永生的无颗粒白细胞细胞系细胞
a immortal cell line cell that is derived from eukaryotic cell
a immortal cell line cell that is derived from eukaryotic cell
源自真核细胞的永生细胞系细胞
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal eukaryotic cell line cell
immortal eukaryotic cell line cell
永生的真核细胞系细胞
a immortal eukaryotic cell line that is derived from animal cell
a immortal eukaryotic cell line that is derived from animal cell
源自动物细胞的永生真核细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal animal cell line
immortal animal cell line
永生的动物细胞系
immortal animal cell line cell
immortal animal cell line cell
永生的动物细胞系细胞
a immortal animal cell line that is derived from epithelial cell
a immortal animal cell line that is derived from epithelial cell
源自上皮细胞的永生动物细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal epithelial cell line cell
immortal epithelial cell line cell
永生的上皮细胞系细胞
a immortal animal cell line that is derived from hematopoietic cell
a immortal animal cell line that is derived from hematopoietic cell
源自造血细胞的永生动物细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal hematopoietic cell line
immortal hematopoietic cell line
永生的造血细胞系
immortal hematopoietic cell line cell
immortal hematopoietic cell line cell
永生的造血细胞系细胞
a immortal hematopoietic cell line that is derived from myeloid cell
a immortal hematopoietic cell line that is derived from myeloid cell
源自骨髓细胞的永生造血细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal myeloid cell line
immortal myeloid cell line
永生的骨髓细胞系
immortal myeloid cell line cell
immortal myeloid cell line cell
永生的骨髓细胞系细胞
a cell line that is derived from somatic cell
a cell line that is derived from somatic cell
源自体细胞的细胞系
ZX, YH
ZX, YH
immortal somatic cell line cell
immortal somatic cell line cell
永生的体细胞系细胞
An immortal cell line cell that derives from pair of lungs.
An immortal cell line cell that derives from pair of lungs.
源自一对肺的永生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal lung-derived cell line cell
immortal lung-derived cell line cell
永生化的肺衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal cell line cell that derives from kidney.
An immortal cell line cell that derives from kidney.
源自肾的永生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal kidney-derived cell line cell
immortal kidney-derived cell line cell
永生化的肾衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal cell line cell that derives from colon.
An immortal cell line cell that derives from colon.
源自结肠的永生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal colon-derived cell line cell
immortal colon-derived cell line cell
永生的结肠衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal cell line cell that derives from female gonad.
An immortal cell line cell that derives from female gonad.
源自雌性性腺的永生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal female gonad-derived cell line cell
immortal female gonad-derived cell line cell
永生的雌性性腺衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal cell line cell that derives from stomach.
An immortal cell line cell that derives from stomach.
源自胃的永生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal stomach-derived cell line cell
immortal stomach-derived cell line cell
永生化的胃衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal epithelial cell line cell that derives from uterine cervix.
An immortal epithelial cell line cell that derives from uterine cervix.
源自子宫颈的永生上皮细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line cell
immortal uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line cell
永生的宫颈衍生上皮细胞系细胞
An immortal lung-derived cell line cell that derives from human.
An immortal lung-derived cell line cell that derives from human.
源自人的永生肺衍生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal human lung-derived cell line cell
immortal human lung-derived cell line cell
永生的人肺衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal cell line cell that derives from human.
An immortal cell line cell that derives from human.
源自人的永生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal human cell line cell
immortal human cell line cell
永生的人细胞系细胞
An immortal colon-derived cell line cell that derives from human.
An immortal colon-derived cell line cell that derives from human.
源自人的永生结肠衍生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal human colon-derived cell line cell
immortal human colon-derived cell line cell
永生化的人结肠衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal kidney-derived cell line cell that derives from vervet monkey.
An immortal kidney-derived cell line cell that derives from vervet monkey.
源自黑长尾猴的永生肾衍生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal vervet monkey kidney-derived cell line cell
immortal vervet monkey kidney-derived cell line cell
永生的黑长尾猴肾衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal stomach-derived cell line cell that derives from human.
An immortal stomach-derived cell line cell that derives from human.
源自人的永生胃衍生细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal human stomach-derived cell line cell
immortal human stomach-derived cell line cell
永生的人胃衍生细胞系细胞
An immortal epithelial cell line cell that derives from human.
An immortal epithelial cell line cell that derives from human.
源自人的永生上皮细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal human epithelial cell line cell
immortal human epithelial cell line cell
永生的人上皮细胞系细胞
An immortal uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line cell that derives from human.
An immortal uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line cell that derives from human.
源自人的永生子宫颈衍生上皮细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal human uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line cell
immortal human uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line cell
永生的人宫颈衍生上皮细胞系细胞
An immortal monocyte cell line cell that derives from human.
An immortal monocyte cell line cell that derives from human.
源自人的永生单核细胞系细胞。
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
Yue Liu, Yongqun He
immortal human monocyte cell line cell
immortal human monocyte cell line cell
永生的人单核细胞系细胞
LCL-1601
LCL-1601
A549
A549
A549 cell
A549 cell
A549 细胞
ATCC: CCL-185
ATCC: CCL-185
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3307651
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3307651
CVCL: CVCL_0023
CVCL: CVCL_0023
EFO: EFO_0001086
EFO: EFO_0001086
HyperCLDB: cl207
HyperCLDB: cl207
LCL-1893
LCL-1893
AGS
AGS
AGS cell
AGS cell
AGS 细胞
ATCC: CRL-1739
ATCC: CRL-1739
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3308078
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3308078
CVCL: CVCL_0139
CVCL: CVCL_0139
EFO: EFO_0002109
EFO: EFO_0002109
LCL-1170
LCL-1170
Caco-2
Caco-2
disease: colorectal adenocarcinoma
disease: colorectal adenocarcinoma
疾病：结肠直肠腺癌
Caco-2 cell
Caco-2 cell
Caco-2 细胞
ATCC: HTB-37
ATCC: HTB-37
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3307519
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3307519
CVCL: CVCL_0025
CVCL: CVCL_0025
EFO: EFO_0001099
EFO: EFO_0001099
HyperCLDB: cl618
HyperCLDB: cl618
MeSH: D018938
MeSH: D018938
CHO
CHO
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell
Chinese Hamster Ovary cell
中国仓鼠卵巢细胞
CHO cell
CHO cell
CHO 细胞
HyperCLDB: cl721
HyperCLDB: cl721
MeSH: D016466
MeSH: D016466
LCL-1226
Detroit 562
https://www.atcc.org/products/all/CCL-138.aspx
disease: carcinoma (pharynx primary)
Detroit 562 cell
ATCC: CCL-138
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3308486
CVCL: CVCL_1171
ECACC: 87042205
EFO: EFO_0002170
LCL-1512
LCL-1512
HeLa
HeLa
WEB: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HeLa
WEB: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HeLa
WEB: http://www.atcc.org/products/all/CCL-2.aspx
WEB: http://www.atcc.org/products/all/CCL-2.aspx
WEB: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12001993
WEB: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12001993
1951年2月8日从一位于1951年10月4日因癌症死亡的病人Henrietta Lacks中获取的宫颈腺癌癌细胞衍生的永生人类子宫颈衍生上皮细胞系。
an immortal human uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line that was derived from cervical adenocarcinoma cancer cells taken on February 8, 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who died of her cancer on October 4, 1951.
an immortal human uterine cervix-derived epithelial cell line that was derived from cervical adenocarcinoma cancer cells taken on February 8, 1951 from Henrietta Lacks, a patient who died of her cancer on October 4, 1951.
HeLa cell
HeLa cell
HeLa 细胞
ATCC: CCL-2
ATCC: CCL-2
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3308376
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3308376
EFO: EFO_0001185
EFO: EFO_0001185
HyperCLDB: cl1601
HyperCLDB: cl1601
MeSH: D006367
MeSH: D006367
RRID:CVCL_0030
RRID:CVCL_0030
HEp-2
HEp-2 cell
ATCC: CCL-23
INT 407
INT 407 cell
HyperCLDB: cl2897
J774A.1
J774A.1
J 774A.1
J774A.1 cell
J774A.1 cell
J774A.1 细胞
ATCC: TIB-67
ATCC: TIB-67
HyperCLDB: cl2928
HyperCLDB: cl2928
LS 174T
LS 174T
disease: colorectal adenocarcinoma
disease: colorectal adenocarcinoma
疾病：大肠腺癌
LS 174T cell
LS 174T cell
LS 174T 细胞
ATCC: CL-188
ATCC: CL-188
NCI-H292
NCI-H292
disease: mucoepidermoid pulmonary carcinoma
disease: mucoepidermoid pulmonary carcinoma
疾病：黏液表皮样肺癌
NCI-H292 cell
NCI-H292 cell
NCI-H292 细胞
ATCC: CRL-1848
ATCC: CRL-1848
LCL-1072
LCL-1072
THP-1
THP-1
THP1
THP1
THP-1 cell
THP-1 cell
THP-1 细胞
ATCC: TIB-202
ATCC: TIB-202
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3307574
CHEMBL: CHEMBL3307574
CVCL: CVCL_0006
CVCL: CVCL_0006
EFO: EFO_0001253
EFO: EFO_0001253
HyperCLDB: cl4514
HyperCLDB: cl4514